Private citizen suits and public enforcement: Substitutes or complements?
AbstractEvery major domestic environmental statute provides for citizen suits yet we know little about their implications. This paper's key contribution is systematic micro-level empirical evidence on the extent to which private environmental prosecutions crowd out, or crowd in, public monitoring and public enforcement. We use judicial instruments in an attempt to isolate the causal influence of private enforcement on public enforcement. We find that private citizen suits crowd in public monitoring but significantly crowd out public sanctions.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.
Volume (Year): 59 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622870
Citizen suits Citizen enforcement Enforcement Regulation Pollution policy Crowding out;
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