Why are convertible bond announcements associated with increasingly negative issuer stock returns? An arbitrage-based explanation
AbstractWhile convertible offerings announced between 1984 and 1999 induce average abnormal stock returns of −1.69%, convertible announcement effects over the period 2000–2008 are more than twice as negative (−4.59%). We hypothesize that this evolution is attributable to a shift in the convertible bond investor base from long-only investors towards convertible arbitrage funds. These funds buy convertibles and short the underlying stocks, causing downward price pressure. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that the differences in announcement returns between the Traditional Investor period (1984–1999) and the Arbitrage period (2000–September 2008) disappear when controlling for arbitrage-induced short selling associated with a range of hedging strategies. Post-issuance stock returns are also in line with the arbitrage explanation. Average announcement effects of convertibles issued during the Global Financial Crisis are even more negative (−9.12%), due to a combination of short-selling price pressure and issuer, issue, and macroeconomic characteristics associated with these offerings.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.
Volume (Year): 36 (2012)
Issue (Month): 11 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf
Convertible debt announcement effect; Convertible arbitrage; Short selling; Hedge funds;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffrey Wurgler & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2000.
"Does Arbitrage Flatten Demand Curves for Stocks?,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
ysm152, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Nov 2001.
- Mark C. Hutchinson & Liam A. Gallagher, 2010. "Convertible Bond Arbitrage: Risk and Return," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(1-2), pages 206-241.
- Rongbing Huang & Gabriel G. Ramírez, 2010. "Speed of Issuance, Lender Specialization, and the Rise of the 144A Debt Market," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 39(2), pages 643-673, 06.
- Lynch, Anthony W & Mendenhall, Richard R, 1997. "New Evidence on Stock Price Effects Associated with Changes in the S&P 500 Index," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(3), pages 351-83, July.
- Alex W. H. Chan & Nai-fu Chen, 2007. "Convertible Bond Underpricing: Renegotiable Covenants, Seasoning, and Convergence," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(11), pages 1793-1814, November.
- Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
- Lemmon, Michael & Roberts, Michael R., 2010. "The Response of Corporate Financing and Investment to Changes in the Supply of Credit," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(03), pages 555-587, June.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
- Yuriy Zabolotnyuk & Robert Jones & Chris Veld, 2010. "An Empirical Comparison of Convertible Bond Valuation Models," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 39(2), pages 675-706, 06.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Jeffrey MacKie-Mason, 1988.
"Do Taxes Affect Corporate Financing Decisions?,"
NBER Working Papers
2632, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Burlacu, Radu, 2000. "New evidence on the pecking order hypothesis: the case of French convertible bonds," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 439-459, December.
- Mazzeo, Michael A & Moore, William T, 1992. "Liquidity Costs and Stock Price Response to Convertible Security Calls," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(3), pages 353-69, July.
- Choi, Darwin & Getmansky, Mila & Tookes, Heather, 2009. "Convertible bond arbitrage, liquidity externalities, and stock prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 227-251, February.
- Agarwal, Vikas & Fung, William H. & Loon, Yee Cheng & Naik, Narayan Y., 2010. "Risk and return in convertible arbitrage: Evidence from the convertible bond market," CFR Working Papers 10-19, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
- Michael Faulkender & Mitchell A. Petersen, 2006.
"Does the Source of Capital Affect Capital Structure?,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(1), pages 45-79.
- Michael Faulkender & Mitchell A. Petersen, 2003. "Does the Source of Capital Affect Capital Structure?," NBER Working Papers 9930, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeremy C. Stein, 1992.
"Convertible Bonds as "Back Door" Equity Financing,"
NBER Working Papers
4028, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- de Jong, Abe & Dutordoir, Marie & Verwijmeren, Patrick, 2011. "Why do convertible issuers simultaneously repurchase stock? An arbitrage-based explanation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 113-129, April.
- Dutordoir, Marie & Van de Gucht, Linda, 2007. "Are there windows of opportunity for convertible debt issuance? Evidence for Western Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2828-2846, September.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Green, Richard C., 1984. "Investment incentives, debt, and warrants," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 115-136, March.
- Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
- Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ammann, Manuel & Kind, Axel & Wilde, Christian, 2003. "Are convertible bonds underpriced? An analysis of the French market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 635-653, April.
- Bechmann, Ken L., 2004. "Short sales, price pressure, and the stock price response to convertible bond calls," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 427-451, October.
- Darwin Choi & Mila Getmansky & Brian Henderson & Heather Tookes, 2010. "Convertible Bond Arbitrageurs as Suppliers of Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(6), pages 2492-2522, June.
- Mark Mitchell & Todd Pulvino & Erik Stafford, 2004. "Price Pressure around Mergers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 31-63, 02.
- Krishnaswami, Sudha & Yaman, Devrim, 2008. "The role of convertible bonds in alleviating contracting costs," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 792-816, November.
- Lewis, Craig M. & Rogalski, Richard J. & Seward, James K., 2001. "The long-run performance of firms that issue convertible debt: an empirical analysis of operating characteristics and analyst forecasts," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 447-474, December.
- Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan, 1986. "Valuation effects of security offerings and the issuance process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 31-60.
- Lewis, Craig M. & Rogalski, Richard J. & Seward, James K., 2003. "Industry conditions, growth opportunities and market reactions to convertible debt financing decisions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 153-181, January.
- Craig M. Lewis & Richard J. Rogalski & James K. Seward, 1999. "Is Convertible Debt a Substitute for Straight Debt or for Common Equity?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 28(3), Fall.
- Bagwell, Laurie Simon, 1992. " Dutch Auction Repurchases: An Analysis of Shareholder Heterogeneity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 71-105, March.
- Malcolm Baker, 2009. "Capital Market-Driven Corporate Finance," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 181-205, November.
- Choe, Hyuk & Masulis, Ronald W. & Nanda, Vikram, 1993. "Common stock offerings across the business cycle : Theory and evidence," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 3-31, June.
- Dhillon, Upinder & Johnson, Herb, 1991. "Changes in the Standard and Poor's 500 List," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(1), pages 75-85, January.
- Korajczyk, Robert A. & Levy, Amnon, 2003. "Capital structure choice: macroeconomic conditions and financial constraints," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 75-109, April.
- Dann, Larry Y. & Mikkelson, Wayne H., 1984. "Convertible debt issuance, capital structure change and financing-related information : Some new evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 157-186, June.
- Krasker, William S, 1986. " Stock Price Movements in Response to Stock Issues under Asymmetric Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 93-105, March.
- Christian Dorion & Pascal François & Gunnar Grass & Alexandre Jeanneret, 2014. "Convertible Debt and Shareholder Incentives," Cahiers de recherche 1403, CIRPEE.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.