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Options, short-sale constraints and market efficiency: A new perspective

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  • Phillips, Blake
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    Abstract

    This paper undertakes a new investigation of the potential for options to mitigate short-sale constraints. I find that option introduction alleviates 79% of the price adjustment efficiency disparity between short-sale constrained and unconstrained stocks in relation to negative news. No significant improvement in adjustment efficiency is found in response to positive information. These results are robust to controls for endogeneity biases associated with the option introduction selection process. Further, I find evidence that post-option improvement in efficiency is similar in relation to private and public information. This suggests that short-sale constraint effects stem, at least in part, from an irrational, optimism bias or another behavioral source as suggested theoretically by Miller (1977). Collectively, these results suggest that options act as an effective substitute to short-sales, significantly contributing to the informational efficiency of the market.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 35 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (February)
    Pages: 430-442

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:35:y:2011:i:2:p:430-442

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

    Related research

    Keywords: Short-sale constraints Option listing Market efficiency;

    References

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    1. Miller, Edward M, 1977. "Risk, Uncertainty, and Divergence of Opinion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1151-68, September.
    2. Chen, Crystal Xiaobei & Rhee, S. Ghon, 2010. "Short sales and speed of price adjustment: Evidence from the Hong Kong stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 471-483, February.
    3. Charles M. Jones & Owen A. Lamont, 2001. "Short Sale Constraints and Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 8494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Stewart Mayhew & Vassil Mihov, 2004. "How Do Exchanges Select Stocks for Option Listing?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 447-471, 02.
    5. Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
    6. Nilsson, Roland, 2008. "The value of shorting," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 880-891, May.
    7. Ekkehart Boehmer & Eric K. Kelley, 2009. "Institutional Investors and the Informational Efficiency of Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(9), pages 3563-3594, September.
    8. Asquith, Paul & Pathak, Parag A. & Ritter, Jay R., 2005. "Short interest, institutional ownership, and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 243-276, November.
    9. Kalok Chan & Y. Peter Chung & Wai-Ming Fong, 2002. "The Informational Role of Stock and Option Volume," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1049-1075.
    10. Mazouz, Khelifa, 2004. "The effect of CBOE option listing on the volatility of NYSE traded stocks: a time-varying variance approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 695-708, December.
    11. Sorin M. Sorescu, 2000. "The Effect of Options on Stock Prices: 1973 to 1995," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 487-514, 02.
    12. Kewei Hou & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 2005. "Market Frictions, Price Delay, and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(3), pages 981-1020.
    13. Danielsen, Bartley R. & van Ness, Bonnie F. & Warr, Richard S., 2007. "Reassessing the Impact of Option Introductions on Market Quality: A Less Restrictive Test for Event-Date Effects," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(04), pages 1041-1062, December.
    14. Chen, Joseph & Hong, Harrison & Stein, Jeremy C., 2002. "Breadth of ownership and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 171-205.
    15. Fedenia, Mark & Grammatikos, Theoharry, 1992. "Options Trading and the Bid-Ask Spread of the Underlying Stocks," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(3), pages 335-51, July.
    16. Nagel, Stefan, 2005. "Short sales, institutional investors and the cross-section of stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 277-309, November.
    17. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    18. Sugato Chakravarty & Huseyin Gulen & Stewart Mayhew, 2004. "Informed Trading in Stock and Option Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(3), pages 1235-1258, 06.
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    Cited by:
    1. Agyei-Ampomah, Sam & Mazouz, Khelifa, 2011. "The comovement of option listed stocks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 2056-2069, August.
    2. Delisle, R. Jared & Lee, Bong Soo & Mauck, Nathan, 2012. "The dynamic relation between short sellers, option traders, and aggregate returns," MPRA Paper 42566, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Charupat, Narat & Miu, Peter, 2011. "The pricing and performance of leveraged exchange-traded funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 966-977, April.
    4. Autore, Don M. & Billingsley, Randall S. & Kovacs, Tunde, 2011. "The 2008 short sale ban: Liquidity, dispersion of opinion, and the cross-section of returns of US financial stocks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2252-2266, September.

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