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WTI crude oil Futures in portfolio diversification: The time-to-maturity effect

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  • Geman, Hélyette
  • Kharoubi, Cécile
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    Abstract

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the diversification effect brought by crude oil Futures contracts, the most liquid commodity Futures, into a portfolio of stocks. The studies that have documented the very low- and essentially negative-correlations between commodities and equities typically rely on normally distributed returns, which is not the case for crude oil Futures and stocks indexes. Moreover, the particular time-to-maturity chosen for the Future contract used as an investment vehicle is an important matter that needs to be addressed, in presence of forward curves switching between backwardation and contango shapes. Our goal in this paper is twofold: (a) we introduce copula functions to have a better representation of the dependence structure of oil Futures with equity indexes; (b) using this copula representation, we are able to analyze in a precise manner the "maturity effect" in the choice of crude oil Future contract with respect to its diversification benefits. Our finding is that, in the case of distant maturities Futures, e.g., 18 months, the negative correlation effect is more pronounced whether stock prices increase or decrease. This property has the merit to avoid the hurdles of a frequent roll over while being quite desirable in the current trendless equity markets. Empirical evidence is exhibited on a database comprising the NYMEX WTI crude oil Futures and S&P 500 index over a 15 year-time period.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 32 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 12 (December)
    Pages: 2553-2559

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:32:y:2008:i:12:p:2553-2559

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

    Related research

    Keywords: WTI crude oil forward curve Copulas for commodities Constant maturity oil Futures contracts;

    References

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    1. Thierry Ane & Cecile Kharoubi, 2003. "Dependence Structure and Risk Measure," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76(3), pages 411-438, July.
    2. Levy, Haim & Sarnat, Marshall, 1970. "International Diversification of Investment Portfolios," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(4), pages 668-75, September.
    3. Geman, Hélyette, 2005. "Commodities and commodity derivatives : modeling and pricing for agriculturals, metals and energy," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/607, Paris Dauphine University.
    4. Stevenson, Richard A & Bear, Robert M, 1970. "Commodity Futures: Trends or Random Walks?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(1), pages 65-81, March.
    5. Geman, Hélyette, 2005. "Energy Commodity Prices : Is Mean-reversion Dead ?," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/1442, Paris Dauphine University.
    6. François Longin, 2001. "Extreme Correlation of International Equity Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 649-676, 04.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Castro, F. & Gago, J. & Hartillo, I. & Puerto, J. & Ucha, J.M., 2011. "An algebraic approach to integer portfolio problems," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 210(3), pages 647-659, May.
    2. Ewing, Bradley T. & Malik, Farooq, 2013. "Volatility transmission between gold and oil futures under structural breaks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 113-121.
    3. Daskalaki, Charoula & Skiadopoulos, George, 2011. "Should investors include commodities in their portfolios after all? New evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2606-2626, October.
    4. El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed & Jouini, Jamel & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2011. "Volatility spillovers between oil prices and stock sector returns: Implications for portfolio management," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1387-1405.
    5. repec:wyi:wpaper:002210 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Cifarelli, Giulio & Paladino, Giovanna, 2009. "Oil and portfolio risk diversification," MPRA Paper 28293, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2010.
    7. Michael Ye & John Zyren & Joanne Shore & Thomas Lee, 2010. "Crude Oil Futures as an Indicator of Market Changes: A Graphical Analysis," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 257-268, August.
    8. Aloui, Riadh & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2013. "A time-varying copula approach to oil and stock market dependence: The case of transition economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 208-221.
    9. Desmoulins-Lebeault, François & Kharoubi-Rakotomalala, Cécile, 2012. "Non-Gaussian diversification: When size matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1987-1996.
    10. Wen, Xiaoqian & Wei, Yu & Huang, Dengshi, 2012. "Measuring contagion between energy market and stock market during financial crisis: A copula approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1435-1446.
    11. Wang, Zong-Run & Chen, Xiao-Hong & Jin, Yan-Bo & Zhou, Yan-Ju, 2010. "Estimating risk of foreign exchange portfolio: Using VaR and CVaR based on GARCH–EVT-Copula model," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(21), pages 4918-4928.
    12. Chng, Michael T., 2009. "Economic linkages across commodity futures: Hedging and trading implications," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 958-970, May.
    13. Giulio Cifarelli & Giovanna Paladino, 2009. "Is Oil A Financial Asset? An Empirical Investigation Spanning the Last Fifteen Years," Working Papers - Economics wp2009_12.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    14. Niels C. Thygesen & Robert N. McCauley & Guonan Ma & William R. White & Jakob de Haan & Willem van den End & Jon Frost & Christiaan Pattipeilohy & Mostafa Tabbae & Ernest Gnan & Morten Balling & Paul , 2013. "50 Years of Money and Finance: Lessons and Challenges," SUERF 50th Anniversary Volume - 50 Years of Money and Finance: Lessons and Challenges, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 1 edited by Morten Balling & Ernest Gnan.
    15. Paschke, Raphael & Prokopczuk, Marcel, 2010. "Commodity derivatives valuation with autoregressive and moving average components in the price dynamics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2742-2752, November.

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