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Modelling Russian outward FDI


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  • Kalotay, Kalman
  • Sulstarova, Astrit


Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by Hong Kong (China) but ahead of Brazil, China and India. This article analyses the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI), including its dynamics and geographical destinations. It also highlights the changing strategies of outward investing Russian firms: in the early 1990s, they were mostly privately-owned transnational corporations (TNCs), seeking 'safety nests' abroad to protect themselves from domestic uncertainty; these days, state-owned or -influenced TNCs dominate Russian capital exports, motivated by a desire to control the value chain of their products. There are, however, characteristics common to both periods, such as the predominance of natural resource-based firms among the largest Russian TNCs. Using those characteristics as a basis, the paper attempts to model formally Russian outward FDI. It tests the extent to which the mainstream theory (ownership and locational advantages) is applicable to the Russian context, as well as the role played by specific factors such as state ownership. Home-country factors seem to play a particularly important role in shaping Russian outward FDI. As for the motivations of FDI, in the CIS and developing countries, Russian TNCs seem to aim at controlling upstream natural resources, while in high-income countries they aim at controlling downstream markets.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

Volume (Year): 16 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 (June)
Pages: 131-142

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Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:16:y:2010:i:2:p:131-142

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Keywords: Russian Federation Outward FDI TNC Natural resources Downstream activities;


References listed on IDEAS
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  1. Buckley, Peter J & Casson, Mark, 1981. "The Optimal Timing of a Foreign Direct Investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(361), pages 75-87, March.
  2. Loungani, Prakash & Mody, Ashoka & Razin, Assaf, 2002. "The Global Disconnect: The Role of Transactional Distance and Scale Economies in Gravity Equations," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 526-43, December.
  3. Kalotay, Kalman, 2008. "Russian transnationals and international investment paradigms," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 85-107, June.
  4. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
  5. Peter J Buckley & L Jeremy Clegg & Adam R Cross & Xin Liu & Hinrich Voss & Ping Zheng, 2007. "The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 499-518, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Boateng, Agyenim & Hua, Xiuping & Uddin, Moshfique & Du, Min, 2014. "Home country macroeconomic factors on outward cross-border mergers and acquisitions: Evidence from the UK," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 202-216.
  2. Victoria Golikova & Paivi Karhunen & Riitta Kosonen, 2013. "Internationalization of Russian firms as institutional arbitrage: The case of Finland," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1144, European Regional Science Association.
  3. Isabel Álvarez & Celia Torrecillas, 2013. "What does it matter about the home countries of emerging multinationals?," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp434, IIIS.
  4. Stoian, Carmen, 2013. "Extending Dunning's Investment Development Path: The role of home country institutional determinants in explaining outward foreign direct investment," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 615-637.
  5. Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui & Puah, Chin Hong & Liew, Venus Khim-Sen, 2010. "Macroeconomic Determinants of Direct Investment Abroad of Singapore," MPRA Paper 47243, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.


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