Deadly anchor: Gender bias under Russian colonization of Kazakhstan
AbstractWe study the impact of a large-scale economic crisis on gender equality, using historical data from Kazakhstan in the late 19th–early 20th century. We focus on sex ratios (number of women per man) in Kazakh population between 1898 and 1908, in the midst of large-scale Russian in-migration into Kazakhstan that caused a sharp exogenous increase in land pressure. The resulting severe economic crisis made the nomadic organization of the Kazakh economy unsustainable and forced most Kazakh households into sedentary agriculture. Using a large novel dataset constructed from Russian colonial expedition materials, we document a low and worsening sex ratio (in particular, among poor households) between 1898 and 1908. The theoretical hypothesis that garners most support is that of excess female mortality in poorer households (especially among adults), driven by gender discrimination under the increasing pressure for scarce food resources.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Explorations in Economic History.
Volume (Year): 49 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622830
Gender bias; Sex ratio; Excess female mortality; Nomadism; Kazakhstan;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
- Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
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