Investigation of forward flow distributed combustion for gas turbine application
AbstractNew innovative advanced combustion design methodology for gas turbine applications is presented that is focused on the quest towards zero emissions. The new design methodology is called colorless distributed combustion (CDC) and is significantly different from the currently used methodology. In this paper forward flow modes of CDC have been investigated for application to gas turbine combustors. The CDC provides significant improvement in pattern factor, reduced NOx emission and uniform thermal field in the entire combustion zone for it to be called as an isothermal reactor. Basic requirement for CDC is carefully tailored mixture preparation through good mixing between the combustion air and product gases prior to rapid mixing with fuel so that the reactants are at much higher temperature to result in hot and diluted oxidant stream at temperatures that are high enough to autoignite the fuel and oxidant mixture. With desirable conditions one can achieve spontaneous ignition of the fuel with distributed combustion reactions. Distributed reactions can also be achieved in premixed mode of operation with sufficient entrainment of burned gases and faster turbulent mixing between the reactants. In the present investigation forward flow modes consisting of two non-premixed combustion modes and one premixed combustion mode have been examined that provide potential for CDC. In all the configurations the air injection port is positioned at the opposite side of the combustor exit, whereas the location of fuel injection ports is changed to give different configurations. Two combustion geometries resulting in thermal intensity of 5Â MW/m3-atm and 28Â MW/m3-atm are investigated. Increase in thermal intensity (lower combustion volume) presents many challenges, such as, lower residence time, lower recirculation of gases and effect of confinement on jet characteristics. The results are presented on the global flame signatures, exhaust emissions, and radical emissions using experiments and flowfield using numerical simulations. Ultra-low NOx emissions are found for both the premixed and non-premixed combustion modes at the two thermal intensities investigated here. Almost colorless flames (no visible flame signatures) have been observed for the premixed combustion mode. The reaction zone is observed to be significantly different in the two non-premixed modes. Higher thermal intensity case resulted in lower recirculation of gases within the combustion chamber and higher CO levels, possibly due to lower associated residence time. The characteristics at the two thermal intensity combustors investigated here were found to be similar.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Applied Energy.
Volume (Year): 88 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description
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