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Fdi And Income Inequality: Evidence From A Panel Of U.S. States

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  • PANDEJ CHINTRAKARN
  • DIERK HERZER
  • PETER NUNNENKAMP

Abstract

This study employs state-level panel data to explore the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and income inequality in the United States. Using panel cointegration techniques that allow for cross-sectional heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence, and endogenous regressors, we find that the short-run effects of FDI on income inequality are insignificant or weakly significant and negative. In the long run, however, FDI exerts a significant and robust negative effect on income inequality in the United States. This result for the United States as a whole does not imply that FDI narrows income gaps in the long run in each individual state. There is considerable heterogeneity in the long-run effects of FDI on income inequality across states, with some states (21 out of 48 cases) exhibiting a positive relationship between FDI in income inequality

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Western Economic Association International in its journal Economic Inquiry.

Volume (Year): 50 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 (07)
Pages: 788-801

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Handle: RePEc:bla:ecinqu:v:50:y:2012:i:3:p:788-801

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  1. Aitken, Brian & Harrison, Ann & Lipsey, Robert E., 1996. "Wages and foreign ownership A comparative study of Mexico, Venezuela, and the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-4), pages 345-371, May.
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  3. Eckhardt Bode & Peter Nunnenkamp & Andreas Waldkirch, 2012. "Spatial effects of foreign direct investment in US states," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 16-40, February.
  4. Feenstra, R.C. & Hanson, G.H., 1995. "Foreign Investment, Outsourcing and Relative Wages," Department of Economics 95-14, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  5. Bode, Eckhardt & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2010. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Regional Development in Developed Countries? A Markov Chain Approach for US States," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 40022, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  6. Feenstra, Robert C. & Hanson, Gordon H., 1997. "Foreign direct investment and relative wages: Evidence from Mexico's maquiladoras," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-4), pages 371-393, May.
  7. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  8. Jorg Breitung, 2005. "A Parametric approach to the Estimation of Cointegration Vectors in Panel Data," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 151-173.
  9. Branstetter, Lee, 2006. "Is foreign direct investment a channel of knowledge spillovers? Evidence from Japan's FDI in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 325-344, March.
  10. Zadia M. Feliciano & Robert E. Lipsey, 2006. "Foreign Ownership, Wages, And Wage Changes In U.S. Industries, 1987-92," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 24(1), pages 74-91, 01.
  11. Banerjee, Anindya, 1999. " Panel Data Unit Roots and Cointegration: An Overview," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 607-29, Special I.
  12. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1999. "The Impact Of Outsourcing And High-Technology Capital On Wages: Estimates For The United States, 1979-1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 907-940, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Rafal Kierzenkowski & Isabell Koske, 2012. "Less Income Inequality and More Growth – Are they Compatible? Part 8. The Drivers of Labour Income Inequality – A Literature Review," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 931, OECD Publishing.
  2. Dierk Herzer, 2011. "Cross-country heterogeneity and the trade-income relationship," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 209, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  3. Herzer, Dierk & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2012. "The effect of foreign aid on income inequality: Evidence from panel cointegration," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 245-255.
  4. Herzer, Dierk, 2014. "Unions and income inequality: a heterogenous cointegration and causality analysis," Working Paper 146/2014, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg.
  5. Dierk Herzer, Peter Nunnenkamp, 2012. "FDI and health in developed economies: a panel cointegration analysis," Kiel Working Papers 1756, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  6. Dierk Herzer & Philipp Hühne & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2012. "FDI and Income Inequality - Evidence from Latin American Economies," Kiel Working Papers 1791, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  7. Dierk Herzer & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2013. "Inward and outward FDI and income inequality: evidence from Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 149(2), pages 395-422, June.
  8. Herzer, Dierk & Vollmer, Sebastian, 2013. "Rising top incomes do not raise the tide," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 504-519.

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