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The Power of Networks: Integration and Financial Cooperative Performance

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  • Martin Desrochers
  • Klaus P. Fischer

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to perform a cross-country survey of the level of integration of systems of financial cooperatives (FC) and its effect on measures of performance. We develop a classification scheme based on a theoretical framework that builds on published work using transaction cost economics (TCE) to explain integration of large numbers of financial cooperatives into networks. We identify three critical levels of increasing integration we call respectively atomized systems, consensual networks and strategic networks. Further, we test some of the propositions that result from the theoretical framework on an international sample of financial cooperative systems. Based on this analysis we can conclude that: (i) Integration is less (more) important in developing (more developed) countries and for very small (large) financial cooperatives as a determinant of efficiency. However, integration tends to reduce volatility of efficiency and performance regardless of development. (ii) Integration appears to help control measure of managers' expense preferences that tend to affect performance of FC. (iii) Despite high costs of running hub-like organizations in highly integrated system, these systems economize in bounded rationality and operate at lower costs than less integrated systems. Copyright CIRIEC, 2005.

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Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Annals of Public & Cooperative Economics.

Volume (Year): 76 (2005)
Issue (Month): 3 (09)
Pages: 307-354

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Handle: RePEc:bla:annpce:v:76:y:2005:i:3:p:307-354

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References

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  1. Mitchell, Karlyn & Onvural, Nur M, 1996. "Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 178-99, May.
  2. Martin Desrochers & Klaus P. Fischer, 2003. "Theory and Test on the Corporate Governance of Financial Cooperative Systems: Merger vs. Networks," Cahiers de recherche 0334, CIRPEE.
  3. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
  4. Lang, Gunter & Welzel, Peter, 1996. "Efficiency and technical progress in banking Empirical results for a panel of German cooperative banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1003-1023, July.
  5. Akella, Srinivas R. & Greenbaum, Stuart I., 1988. "Savings and loan ownership structure and expense-preference," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 419-437, September.
  6. Awh, Robert Y & Primeaux, Walter J, Jr, 1985. "Managerial Discretion and Expense Preference Behavior," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(2), pages 224-31, May.
  7. Oxley, Joanne E, 1997. "Appropriability Hazards and Governance in Strategic Alliances: A Transaction Cost Approach," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(2), pages 387-409, October.
  8. Fried, Harold O. & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Eeckaut, Philippe Vanden, 1993. "Evaluating the performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 251-265, April.
  9. Hennart, J.M.A., 2001. "Explaining the swollen middle: Why most transactions are a mix of market and hierarchy," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-87538, Tilburg University.
  10. Henry Ogden Armour & David J. Teece, 1978. "Organizational Structure and Economic Performance: A Test of the Multidivisional Hypothesis," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(1), pages 106-122, Spring.
  11. Loretta J. Mester, 1989. "Testing for expense preference behavior: mutual versus stock savings and loans," Working Papers 89-27, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  12. Verbrugge, James A & Jahera, John S, Jr, 1981. "Expense-Preference Behavior in the Savings and Loan Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 13(4), pages 465-76, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marc Labie & Anaïs Périlleux, 2008. "Corporate governance in microfinance: credit unions," Working Papers CEB 08-003.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  2. Wim Fonteyne, 2007. "Cooperative Banks in Europe," IMF Working Papers 07/159, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Anaïs A Périlleux, 2010. "Maturity Mismatch and Governance of Microfinance Cooperatives: Lessons from History," Working Papers CEB 10-005.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  4. Tchakoute-Tchuigoua, Hubert, 2012. "Active risk management and loan contract terms: Evidence from rated microfinance institutions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(4), pages 427-437.
  5. Hubert Tchakoute Tchuigoua, 2011. "Contrat de crédit, décentralisation décisionnelle et performance des institutions de microfinance," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 14(2), pages 143-173, June.
  6. Christine Marsal, 2010. "Contrôle de gestion et gouvernance cognitive:le cas d’une banque mutualiste Management accounting and cognitive governance:cooperative bank case study," Working Papers CREGO 1100601, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
  7. Hudon, Marek & Périlleux, Anaïs, 2014. "Surplus distribution and characteristics of social enterprises: Evidence from microfinance," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 147-157.
  8. Massimo Arnone & Michele Modina, 2013. "The Effectiviness Of The Network Theory In Improving The Contribution To Financial Innovation Of Italian Cooperative Banks," ERSA conference papers ersa13p829, European Regional Science Association.
  9. Tchakoute-Tchuigoua, Hubert, 2010. "Is there a difference in performance by the legal status of microfinance institutions?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 436-442, November.
  10. Hubert Tchakoute Tchuigoua, 2010. "Forme juridique et performances des institutions de microfinance," Revue Finance Contrôle Stratégie, revues.org, vol. 13(3), pages 39-60., September.
  11. Martin Cihák & Heiko Hesse, 2007. "Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability," IMF Working Papers 07/2, International Monetary Fund.

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