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Organizational Form and Efficiency: The Coexistence of Stock and Mutual Property-Liability Insurers

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Author Info

  • J. David Cummins

    (Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104)

  • Mary A. Weiss

    (Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122)

  • Hongmin Zi

    (Sejong University, Seoul, Korea)

Abstract

This article introduces a new approach, cross-frontier analysis, for estimating the relative efficiency of alternative organizational forms in an industry. The technique is illustrated by analyzing a sample of stock and mutual property-liability insurers using nonparametric frontier efficiency methods. Cross-frontier analysis measures the relative efficiency of each organizational form by computing the efficiency of each stock (mutual) firm relative to a reference set consisting of all mutual (stock) firms. We test agency-theoretic hypotheses about organizational form, including the managerial discretion and expense preference hypotheses. The results indicate that stocks and mutuals are operating on separate production and cost frontiers and thus represent distinct technologies. Consistent with the managerial discretion hypothesis, the stock technology dominates the mutual technology for producing stock outputs and the mutual technology dominates the stock technology for producing mutual outputs. However, consistent with the expense preference hypothesis, the stock cost frontier dominates the mutual cost frontier. Our findings thus suggest a richer interpretation of organizational form than provided by previous researchers.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.45.9.1254
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

Volume (Year): 45 (1999)
Issue (Month): 9 (September)
Pages: 1254-1269

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Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:45:y:1999:i:9:p:1254-1269

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Related research

Keywords: organizational form; X-efficiency; data envelopment analysis; insurance;

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Cited by:
  1. Attiea Marie & Ananth Rao & Hossein Kashani, 2009. "Cost efficiency and value driver analysis of insurers in an emerging economy," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(4), pages 265-280.
  2. J. Cummins & Georges Dionne & Robert Gagné & A. Nouira, 2009. "Efficiency of insurance firms with endogenous risk management and financial intermediation activities," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 145-159, October.
  3. Tone, Kaoru & Sahoo, Biresh K., 2005. "Evaluating cost efficiency and returns to scale in the Life Insurance Corporation of India using data envelopment analysis," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 261-285, December.
  4. J.Cook & S.Deakin & A.Hughes, 2001. "Mutuality and Corporate Governance: The Evolution of UK Building Societies Following Deregulation," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp205, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
  5. Sufian, Fadzlan, 2011. "Banks total factor productivity change in a developing economy: Does ownership and origins matter?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 84-98, February.
  6. Jean-Baptiste Cartier, 2010. "Entre opposition fondamentale et convergence contrainte, quel avenir pour la banque mutualiste face à la banque SA ?," Post-Print halshs-00743737, HAL.
  7. Norashikin Ismail & Prof. Dr. Datuk Syed Othman Alhabshi & Prof. Obiyathulla Bacha, 2011. "Organizational Form And Efficiency: The Coexistence Of Family Takaful And Life Insurance In Malaysia," Journal of Global Business and Economics, Global Research Agency, vol. 3(1), pages 122-137, July.
  8. Hela Miniaoui & Anissa Chaibi, 2014. "Technical Efficiency of Takaful Industry- A Comparative Study of Malaysia and GCC Countries," Working Papers 2014-055, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
  9. repec:ise:isegwp:wp182007 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Xie, Xiaoying, 2010. "Are publicly held firms less efficient? Evidence from the US property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1549-1563, July.
  11. Jarraya, Bilel & Bouri, Abdelfettah, 2012. "Efficiency concept and investigations in insurance industry: A survey," MPRA Paper 53544, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
  12. Huang, Wei & Eling, Martin, 2013. "An efficiency comparison of the non-life insurance industry in the BRIC countries," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 226(3), pages 577-591.
  13. Weiss, Mary A. & Choi, Byeongyong Paul, 2008. "State regulation and the structure, conduct, efficiency and performance of US auto insurers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 134-156, January.
  14. A. Camanho & R. Dyson, 2006. "Data envelopment analysis and Malmquist indices for measuring group performance," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 35-49, August.
  15. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin, 2012. "Organization and efficiency in the international insurance industry: A cross-frontier analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 221(2), pages 454-468.
  16. Leverty, J. Tyler & Grace, Martin F., 2010. "The robustness of output measures in property-liability insurance efficiency studies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1510-1524, July.

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