Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Organizational Form and Efficiency: An Analysis of Stock and Mutual Property-Liability Insurers

Contents:

Author Info

  • J. David Cummins
  • Mary A. Weiss
  • Hongmin Zi

Abstract

This paper analyzes the efficiency of stock and mutual organizational forms in the property-liability insurance industry using nonparametric frontier efficiency methods. We test the managerial discretion hypothesis, which predicts that the market will sort organizational forms into market segments where they have comparative advantages in minimizing the costs of production, including agency costs. Both production and cost frontiers are estimated. The results indicate that stocks and mutuals are operating on separate production and cost frontiers and thus represent distinct technologies. The stock technology dominates the mutual technology for producing stock output vectors and the mutual technology dominates the stock technology for producing mutual output vectors. However, the stock cost frontier dominates the mutual cost frontier for the majority of both stock and mutual firms. Thus, the mutuals' technological advantage is eroded because they are less successful than stocks in choosing cost-minimizing combinations of inputs. The finding of separate frontiers and organization specific technological advantages is consistent with the managerial discretion hypothesis, but we also find evidence that stocks are more successful than mutuals in minimizing costs.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/97/9702.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania in its series Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers with number 97-02.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: May 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:97-02

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 3301 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, 3620 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.6367
Phone: 215.898.1279
Fax: 215.573.8757
Email:
Web page: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Fecher, F. & Kessler, D. & Perelman, S. & Pestieau, P., . "Productive performance of the French insurance industry," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1043, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  2. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1988. "Ownership Structure across Lines of Property-Casualty Insurance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 351-78, October.
  3. Berger, Allen N & Cummins, J David & Weiss, Mary A, 1997. "The Coexistence of Multiple Distribution Systems for Financial Services: The Case of Property-Liability Insurance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(4), pages 515-46, October.
  4. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "Measurement and efficiency issues in commercial banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 151, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. Aly, Hassan Y, et al, 1990. "Technical, Scale, and Allocative Efficiencies in U.S. Banking: An Empirical Investigation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 211-18, May.
  6. Fama, Eugene F & Jensen, Michael C, 1983. "Agency Problems and Residual Claims," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 327-49, June.
  7. Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A., 1993. "Measuring cost efficiency in the property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 463-481, April.
  8. Fare, Rolf & Shawna Grosskopf & Mary Norris & Zhongyang Zhang, 1994. "Productivity Growth, Technical Progress, and Efficiency Change in Industrialized Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 66-83, March.
  9. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1991. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 117-148, August.
  10. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1992. "Executive Compensation in the Life Insurance Industry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(1), pages 51-74, January.
  11. Fukuyama, Hirofumi, 1997. "Investigating productive efficiency and productivity changes of Japanese life insurance companies," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 481-509, September.
  12. Mester, Loretta J., 1991. "Agency costs among savings and loans," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 257-278, June.
  13. Fama, Eugene F & Jensen, Michael C, 1983. "Separation of Ownership and Control," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 301-25, June.
  14. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1981. "Contractual Provisions, Organizational Structure, and Conflict Control in Insurance Markets," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(3), pages 407-34, July.
  15. Gardner, Lisa A. & Grace, Martin F., 1993. "X-Efficiency in the US life insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 497-510, April.
  16. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  17. Elyasiani, Elyas & Mehdian, Seyed, 1992. "Productive efficiency performance of minority and nonminority-owned banks: A nonparametric approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 933-948, September.
  18. Lee, Soon-Jae & Mayers, David & Smith Jr., Clifford W., 1997. "Guaranty funds and risk-taking Evidence from the insurance industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 3-24, April.
  19. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford Jr., 1986. "Ownership structure and control : The mutualization of stock life insurance companies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 73-98, May.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1998. "Analyzing Firm Performance in the Insurance Industry Using Frontier Efficiency Methods," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-22, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. J. David Cummins & Georges Dionne & Robert Gagné & Abdelhakim Nouira, 2006. "Efficiency of Insurance Firms with Endogenous Risk Management and Financial Intermediation Activities," Cahiers de recherche 06-06, HEC Montréal, Institut d'économie appliquée.
  3. Sufian, Fadzlan, 2011. "Banks total factor productivity change in a developing economy: Does ownership and origins matter?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 84-98, February.
  4. Rubio-Misas, María, 2009. "Productividad y eficiencia de las Mutualidades de Previsión Social/Productivity and Efficiency of Social Benefit Institutions," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 27, pages 571 (30 Pá, Agosto.
  5. repec:ise:isegwp:wp182007 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Robert W. Klein & Paul R. Kleindorfer, 1999. "The Supply of Catastrophe Insurance Under Regulatory Constraints," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-25, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  7. J. Cummins & Gregory Nini, 2002. "Optimal Capital Utilization by Financial Firms: Evidence from the Property-Liability Insurance Industry," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 15-53, February.
  8. J. David Cummins & Maria Rubio-Misas, 2001. "Deregulation, Consolidation, and Efficiency: Evidence From the Spanish Insurance Industry," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  9. Hao, James C.J. & Chou, Lin-Yhi, 2005. "The estimation of efficiency for life insurance industry: The case in Taiwan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 847-860, October.
  10. J.A. Bikker & J. Gorter, 2008. "Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus," Working Papers 08-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
  11. Gonzalo Rodríguez‐Pérez & John Slof & Magda Solà & Margarita Torrent & Immaculada Vilardell, 2011. "Assessing the Impact of Fair‐Value Accounting on Financial Statement Analysis: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 47(1), pages 61-84, 03.
  12. J.Cook & S.Deakin & A.Hughes, 2001. "Mutuality and Corporate Governance: The Evolution of UK Building Societies Following Deregulation," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp205, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
  13. Bernhard Mahlberg & Thomas Url, . "The Transition to the Single Market in the German Insurance Industry," WIFO Working Papers 131, WIFO.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:97-02. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.