International Harmonization and the Gains from Trade
AbstractInternational harmonization of standards and regulations is often a goal expressed in trade agreements because it is expected to yield gains from trade. Absence of progress toward harmonization is often interpreted as being motivated by protectionism, with differences in standards and regulations seen as non-tariff barriers. While protectionism may well be the source of resistance to harmonization, there may be other reasons it is not pursued. These alternative explanations have not received much attention from economists. In this article some of these alternatives are outlined - demand effects from altering standards, switching costs, proprietary technologies. The article concludes that proposals for international harmonization need to be scrutinized carefully.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade in its journal Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy.
Volume (Year): 07 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
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demand effects; harmonization; regulation; standards; switching costs; TBT; International Relations/Trade;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kerr, William A., 2003. "Science-based Rules of Trade: A Mantra for Some, An Anathema for Others," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 4(2).
- Roberts, Donna & Josling, Timothy E. & Orden, David, 1999. "A Framework for Analyzing Technical Trade Barriers in Agricultural Markets," Technical Bulletins 33560, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Sawyer, Erin N. & Kerr, William A. & Hobbs, Jill E., 2008. "Consumer preferences and the international harmonization of organic standards," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 607-615, December.
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