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Top 25% European Economics Departments, as of July 2015

This page shows one of the many rankings computed with RePEc data. They are based on data about authors who have registered with the RePEc Author Service, institutions listed on EDIRC, bibliographic data collected by RePEc, citation analysis performed by CitEc and popularity data compiled by LogEc. To find more rankings, historical data and detailed methodology, click here. Or see the ranking FAQ. These rankings take only into account institutions registered in EDIRC and authors registered with the RePEc Author Service and the institutions they claimed to be affiliated with. For European Economics Departments, these are 809 institutions. Institutions need satisfy the following criteria to be included: Institutions having the following words in its name or its name translation on EDIRC: Economics and one of School, Department, Division or Faculty; be located in Europe.
All institutions in this category.

Top 25% European Economics Departments

Please note that rankings can depend on the number of registered authors in the respective institutions. Register at the RePEc Author Service.
RankInstitutionScoreAuthorsAuthor shares
1Department of Economics, Oxford University

Oxford, United Kingdom

1.11173126.77
2Paris School of Economics

Paris, France

2.29184128.55
3Toulouse School of Economics (TSE)

Toulouse, France

2.93141121.27
4Department of Economics, University College London (UCL)

London, United Kingdom

4.357356.49
5Barcelona Graduate School of Economics (Barcelona GSE)

Barcelona, Spain

5.01151116.13
6Economics Department, London School of Economics (LSE)

London, United Kingdom

6.485841.15
7Department of Economics, University of Warwick

Coventry, United Kingdom

7.797055.25
8Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge

Cambridge, United Kingdom

9.586754.46
9Institut for Økonomi, Aarhus Universitet

Aarhus, Denmark

9.9511479.98
10École des Sciences Économiques de Louvain, Université Catholique de Louvain

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

10.3713073.21
11Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakutät, Universität Zürich

Zürich, Switzerland

10.457567.52
12School of Economics, University of Nottingham

Nottingham, United Kingdom

13.799362.42
13Aix-Marseille School of Economics (AMSE)

Aix-en-Provence/Marseille, France

14.4710990.83
14Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York

York, United Kingdom

15.068474.52
15Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfswetenschappen, KU Leuven

Leuven, Belgium

15.6712076.09
16Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde, Universiteit van Amsterdam

Amsterdam, Netherlands

16.378455.08
17Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique (CREST), Groupe des Écoles Nationales d'Économie et Statistique (GENES)

Paris, France

17.457647.54
18Økonomisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo

Oslo, Norway

19.835244.85
19Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam

Rotterdam, Netherlands

21.5710269.16
20Økonomisk Institut, Københavns Universitet

København, Denmark

21.76347.91
21Département Comptabilité, Droit, Finance et Économie, Groupe EDHEC (École de Hautes Études Commerciales du Nord)

Lille/Paris, France

21.851411.34
22School of Business, Management and Economics, University of Sussex

Brighton, United Kingdom

22.087659.71
23Department of Economics, Sciences économiques, Sciences Po

Paris, France

22.814032.86
24Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Groningen, Netherlands

23.737857.51
25Volkswirtschaftliche Fakultät, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

München, Germany

25.496350.35
26Abteilung für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Universität Mannheim

Mannheim, Germany

25.695347.74
27Economics Department, University of Essex

Colchester, United Kingdom

27.064641.77
28Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna

Bologna, Italy

27.79377.12
29Departamento de Economía, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Madrid, Spain

27.976053.88
30School of Economics, University of Edinburgh

Edinburgh, United Kingdom

28.13431.7
31Facoltà di Economia, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata"

Roma, Italy

29.4510490.22
32School of Economics and Management, Universiteit van Tilburg

Tilburg, Netherlands

29.747642.65
33National Research University Higher School of Economics

Moscow, Russia

30.11334290.89
34Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

30.936858.45
35School of Economics, University of Manchester

Manchester, United Kingdom

31.284840.9
36Wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher Fachbereich, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

Bonn, Germany

32.384740.45
37School of Economics and Political Science, Universität St. Gallen

Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

34.356149.05
38School of Economics, Finance and Management, University of Bristol

Bristol, United Kingdom

42.594935.75
39Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds Universitet

Lund, Sweden

42.699781.66
40Nationalekonomiska Institutionen, Uppsala Universitet

Uppsala, Sweden

42.766144.6
41School of Economics and Finance, Queen Mary

London, United Kingdom

444436.88
42Department of Economics, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm

Stockholm, Sweden

45.171210.57
43Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Konstanz

Konstanz, Germany

45.884239.1
44Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms Universitet

Stockholm, Sweden

46.783529.93
45Facultat d'Economia i Empresa, Universitat de Barcelona

Barcelona, Spain

46.9210787.93
46Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs Universitet

Göteborg, Sweden

476250.87
47Department of Economics, Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow

Glasgow, United Kingdom

49.315042.42
48School of Economics, University of Kent

Canterbury, United Kingdom

49.714540.61
49Department of Economics, Royal Holloway

Egham, United Kingdom

49.983124.6
50Department of Economics, European University Institute

Firenze, Italy

50.573826.81
51Department of Economics, Management School, Lancaster University

Lancaster, United Kingdom

51.594240.79
52New Economic School (NES)

Moscow, Russia

53.964432.04
53Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

Italy

56.126960.66
54School of Economics, University College Dublin

Dublin, Ireland

56.552923.52
55Department Volkswirtschaftlehre, Universität Bern

Bern, Switzerland

57.712823.56
56Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Humboldt-Universität Berlin

Berlin, Germany

57.858659.54
57Département d'Économie, École Polytechnique

Palaiseau, France

58.014833.13
58Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin

Dublin, Ireland

58.123722.16
59Department of Economics, London Business School (LBS)

London, United Kingdom

58.97129.55
60Department of Economics, University of Birmingham

Birmingham, United Kingdom

59.753330.32
61Dipartimento di Economia, Management e Metodi Quantitativi (DEMM), Università degli Studi di Milano

Milano, Italy

59.999584.65
62Department of Economics, Leicester University

Leicester, United Kingdom

63.293430.61
63Départment d'économétrie et d'économie politique (DEEP), Faculté des Hautes Études Commerciales (HEC), Université de Lausanne

Lausanne, Switzerland

63.312520.37
64Economics Department, University of Strathclyde

Glasgow, United Kingdom

63.653230.55
65Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad del País Vasco - Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea

Bilbao, Spain

64.199787.71
66Department of Economics, Mathematics and Statistics, Birkbeck College

London, United Kingdom

66.152520.33
67Facultad de Economía, Universidad de València

València, Spain

67.566753.25
68Economics Division, University of Southampton

Southampton, United Kingdom

68.533126.18
69Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel

Kiel, Germany

68.963120.93
70Dipartimento di Economia "Ettore Bocconi", Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi

Milano, Italy

69.32817.46
71Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche "Marco Fanno", Università degli Studi di Padova

Padova, Italy

69.334137.12
72Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Wien

Wien, Austria

69.393124.34
73Dipartimento di Economia, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia

Venezia, Italy

71.646650.05
74Department of Economics, University of Sheffield

Sheffield, United Kingdom

72.234137.14
75Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Cyprus

Nicosia, Cyprus

72.862216.67
76Fakultät für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Heidelberg, Germany

73.342824.7
77Afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Bedrijfskunde, Vrije Universiteit

Amsterdam, Netherlands

73.573222.54
78Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Zentrum, Universität Basel

Basel, Switzerland

74.223529.08
79Institutt for samfunnsøkonomi, Norges Handelshøyskole (NHH)

Bergen, Norway

75.412119.12
80Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Leibniz Universität Hannover

Hannover, Germany

75.795449.47
81School of Economics, University of Surrey

Guildford, United Kingdom

78.044335.87
82Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Madrid, Spain

78.457565.59
83Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Lisboa, Portugal

79.043725.38
84Geneva School of Economics and Management, Université de Genève

Genève, Switzerland

82.013323.27
85Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Johannes-Kepler-Universität Linz

Linz, Austria

82.563222.83
86Department of Economics, Central European University

Budapest, Hungary

84.772917.65
87Facoltà di Economia "Giorgio Fuà", Università Politecnica delle Marche

Ancona, Italy

85.025443.68
88Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica "Cognetti de Martiis", Università degli Studi di Torino

Torino, Italy

85.514734.2
89School of Economics, University of East Anglia

Norwich, United Kingdom

87.282822.03
90Economics Section, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University

Cardiff, United Kingdom

90.053631.89
91Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza (DEF), Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli (LUISS)

Roma, Italy

90.593424.45
92School of Economics and Finance, University of St. Andrews

Fife, United Kingdom

91.821714.23
93Centre de Recherche en Économie Appliquée (CREA), Faculté de droit, d'économie et de finance, Université du Luxembourg

Luxembourg, Luxembourg

92.022418.9
94Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto

Porto, Portugal

92.486152.7
95Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad de Zaragoza

Zaragoza, Spain

94.076057.52
96Facoltà di Economia, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca

Milano, Italy

94.815346.38
97Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Heinriche-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf, Germany

96.333732.73
98Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi", Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia

Modena, Italy

96.464235.35
99Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

Göttingen, Germany

96.995139.41
100Vakgroep Algemene Economie, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University

Maastricht, Netherlands

97.173219.11
101Fachbereich Volkswirtschaftslehre, Universität Hamburg

Hamburg, Germany

97.633528.73
102Økonomisk Institut, Copenhagen Business School

Frederiksberg, Denmark

98.332523.74
103Institutt for Økonomi, Universitetet i Bergen

Bergen, Norway

99.972523.18
104Fakultät für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck

Innsbruck, Austria

102.062318.49
105Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany

104.222117.29
106Afdeling Economie, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Bedrijfskunde, Vrije Universiteit

Amsterdam, Netherlands

106.351911.75
107Gutenberg School of Management and Economics, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

Mainz, Germany

107.31916.89
108Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen

Tübingen, Germany

108.552823.03
109Department of Economics and Finance Research and Teaching, Institut für Höhere Studien (IHS)

Wien, Austria

109.062316.51
110Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Madrid, Spain

110.546360.08
111İktisat Bölümü, Bilkent Üniversitesi

Ankara, Turkey

110.962320.3
112Facultade de Ciencias Económicas e Empresariais, Universidade de Vigo

Vigo, Spain

111.216356.75
113Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa, Università degli Studi di Firenze

Firenze, Italy

113.023934.91
114École d'Économie, Université d'Auvergne (Clermont-Ferrand 1)

Clermont-Ferrand, France

113.465646.7
115Institut for Virksomhedsledelse og Økonomi, Syddansk Universitet

Odense, Denmark

114.223229.83
116İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, Koç Üniversitesi

İstanbul, Turkey

115.881413.4
117Faculté des Sciences Économiques, Sociales et de Gestion (FSESG), Université de Namur

Namur, Belgium

116.072923.28
118School of Economics, Universiteit Utrecht

Utrecht, Netherlands

116.823324.1
119Department of Economics and Finance, Brunel University

Uxbridge, United Kingdom

117.561915.87
120Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Duisburg-Essen

Essen, Germany

117.83022.29
121Department of Economics, Athens University of Economics and Business (AUEB)

Athens, Greece

118.721713.94
122Abteilung Volkswirtschaftslehre, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Freie Universität Berlin

Berlin, Germany

118.821410.87
123Department of International and European Economic Studies, Athens University of Economics and Business (AUEB)

Athens, Greece

119.721513.68
124Départment de Finance et Économie, HEC Paris (École des Hautes Études Commerciales)

Jouy-en-Josas, France

120.2387.69
125Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

Jena, Germany

121.753329.34
126Faculté de sciences économiques, Université de Montpellier I

Montpellier, France

122.996249.52
127Department of Economics, University of Bath

Bath, United Kingdom

124.011917.88
128Department of Accountancy, Economics and Finance, School of Management and Languages, Heriot-Watt University

Edinburgh, United Kingdom

125.381412.53
129Institutt for Samfunnsøkonomi, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskaplige universitet (NTNU)

Trondheim, Norway

125.981614.75
130Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie

Warszawa, Poland

126.438872.66
131Facoltà di Economia, Università degli Studi di Verona

Verona, Italy

126.894436.79
132Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Navarra

Pamplona, Spain

129.422321.35
133Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Facultät, Universität Bayreuth

Bayreuth, Germany

129.52623.88
134Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università degli Studi di Brescia

Brescia, Italy

130.031817
135Faculté de droit, d'économie et de gestion, Université d'Orléans

Orléans, France

130.114336.13
136Facoltà di Economia, Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"

Roma, Italy

131.254440.72
137Facoltá di scienze economiche, Universitá della Svizzera Italiana (USI)

Lugano, Switzerland

131.832621.36
138Department of Economics and Finance, Business School, Durham University

Durham, United Kingdom

132.552420.8
139Département d'Économie Appliquée (DULBEA), Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, Université Libre de Bruxelles

Bruxelles, Belgium

132.912818.59
140Department of Economics, National University of Ireland

Maynooth, Ireland

134.571615.25
141Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg

Oldenburg, Germany

134.941311.93
142Department of Economics, University of Stirling

Stirling, United Kingdom

135.341917.2
143Taloustieteen Laitos, Kauppakorkeakoulu, Aalto-yliopisto

Helsinki, Finland

135.4119.16
144Staatswissenschaftliches Seminar, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität zu Köln

Köln, Germany

135.5997.48
145School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University

Loughborough, United Kingdom

138.322625.77
146Dipartimento di Economia, Università degli Studi di Roma 3

Roma, Italy

141.154537.16
147Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leuphana Universität Lüneburg

Lüneburg, Germany

143.851715.74
148Faculté de Sciences Économiques et de Gestion, Université Lumière (Lyon 2)

Lyon, France

144.353731.07
149Department of Economics, City University

London, United Kingdom

144.492116.5
150Department Volkswirtschaft, WU Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien

Wien, Austria

145.032315.61
151İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi

Ankara, Turkey

145.712722.88
152Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

Freiburg, Germany

145.871310.48
153Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg

Magdeburg, Germany

148.851813.97
154Department of Economics, University of Crete

Rethymnon, Greece

150.291917.91
155Economics Subject Group, Business School, Newcastle University

Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

150.61413.79
156Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschafltiche Fakultät, Universität Potsdam

Potsdam, Germany

150.752018.62
157Facultade de Ciencias Económicas e Empresariais, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Santiago de Compostela, Spain

153.162927.53
158Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Barcelona, Spain

155.932522.72
159Département de Sciences Économiques et de Gestion, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)

Paris, France

1573527.68
160Department of Economics, University of Macedonia

Thessaloniki, Greece

157.461716.42
161Fakultät Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Universität Hohenheim

Hohenheim, Germany

158.653330.42
162Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad de Murcia

Murcia, Spain

160.373332.2
163Facoltà di Economia "Richard M. Goodwin", Università degli Studi di Siena

Siena, Italy

163.373529.25
164Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques i Empresarials, Universitat Rovira I Virgili Tarragona

Reus, Spain

164.024136.83
165Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Universität Augsburg

Augsburg, Germany

164.211716.09
166Department of Economics, University of Aberdeen

Aberdeen, United Kingdom

166.11612.04
167Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Aziendali, Università degli Studi di Pavia

Pavia, Italy

166.582017.01
168Institutt for samfunnsøkonomi, BI Handelshøyskolen

Oslo, Norway

167.031310.25
169Departamento de Economía, Universidad Pablo de Olavide

Sevilla, Spain

167.982120.04
170Fakultät Wirtschaft und Management, Technische Universität Berlin

Berlin, Germany

169.052619.61
171İktisat Bölümü, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi

İstanbul, Turkey

170.92422.07
172Institut for Fødevare- og Ressourceøkonomi, Københavns Universitet

København, Denmark

171.663028.15
173Dipartimento di Economia, Università degli Studi di Perugia

Perugia, Italy

172.232118.88
174Faculdade de Ciências Económicas e Empresariais, Universidade Católica Portuguesa

Lisboa, Portugal

173.231612.77
175Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica, Departament d'Economia i Història Econòmica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics (Barcelona GSE)

Barcelona, Spain

174.06139.83
176School of Economics and Business, Norges miljø- og biovitenskapelig universitet

Ås, Norway

176.261210.89
177Grup d'Anàlisi Quantitativa Regional, Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada (IREA), Facultat d'Economia i Empresa, Universitat de Barcelona

Barcelona, Spain

176.411711.47
178Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università degli Studi di Pisa

Pisa, Italy

176.962418.62
179Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

Münster, Germany

178.832118.82
180Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Technische Universität Dresden

Dresden, Germany

179.241915.85
181Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Statistiche e Finanziarie, Università della Calabria

Arcavacata di Rende, Italy

1811312.1
182Centre de Recherche en Économie Publique et de la Population (CREPP), HEC École de Gestion, Université de Liège

Liège, Belgium

182.0363.05
183Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università degli Studi di Trento

Trento, Italy

182.132015.54
184Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Granada

Granada, Spain

182.576454.95
185Department of Economics Studies, University of Dundee

Dundee, United Kingdom

183.641614.5
186CER-ETH Center of Economic Research, Department of Management, Technology and Economics (D-MTEC), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ)

Zürich, Switzerland

184.821916.3
187Department of Economics, University of Thessaly

Greece

184.851615.9
188Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques i Empresarials, Universitat de les Illes Balears

Palma de Mallorca, Spain

186.692927.61
189Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Philipps-Universität Marburg

Marburg, Germany

187.31311.79
190Ekonomska fakuteta, Univerza v Ljubljani

Ljubljana, Slovenia

188.021915.93
191Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität Regensburg

Regensburg, Germany

189.831915.6
192Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Empresariales y Turismo, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares

Alcalá de Henares, Spain

190.463429.03
193Közgazdaságtudományi Kar, Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem

Budapest, Hungary

190.633324.4
194Facoltà di Economia, Università degli Studi di Urbino

Urbino, Italy

190.772320.43
195Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Coimbra

Coimbra, Portugal

193.823631.01
196Departamento de Economía, Universidad Pública de Navarra

Pamplona, Spain

195.121817.5
197Dipartimento di Economia e Management, Università degli Studi di Ferrara

Ferrara, Italy

195.632523.14
198Dipartimento di Economia, Università degli Studi di Chieti e Pescara ("G. d'Annunzio")

Pescara, Italy

195.911412.9
199Department of Economics, Finance, Statistics and Informatics, Internationella Handelshögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping

Jönköping, Sweden

195.982513.46
200Faculté des sciences économiques et sociales - Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Université de Fribourg - Universität Freiburg

Fribourg/Freiburg, Switzerland

197.722418.34
201Escola de Economia e Gestão, Universidade do Minho

Braga, Portugal

200.642613.67
202Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Málaga

Málaga, Spain

201.532827.5

The data presented here is experimental. It is based on a limited sample of the research output in Economics and Finance. Only material catalogued in RePEc is considered. For any citation based criterion, only works that could be parsed by the CitEc project are considered. For any ranking of people, only those registered with the RePEc Author Service can be taken into account. And for rankings of institutions, only those listed in EDIRC and claimed as affiliation by the respective, registered authors can be measured. Thus, this list is by no means based on a complete sample. You can help making this more comprehensive by encouraging more publications to be listed (instructions) and more authors to register (form). For more details on the various rankings that are available as well for documentation, follow this link.

Credits:

We do our best, but we cannot exclude errors.
This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.