There's no Place Like Home: A Strategic Framework to Overcome Liability of Foreignness in the German Car Market
Globalization has led to exciting new business opportunities around the globe. Still, national and cultural boundaries have not evaporated into a "borderless world". Several studies have identified so-called liabilities of foreignness that arise from a lack of embeddedness and roots in the host market and subsequent competitive disadvantages. Countervailing strategies for these effects have remained scarce so far. We suggest that this is due to the lack of a viable approach to identify and quantify these effects and develop a conceptual framework to empirically estimate the individual degree of liability of foreignness of a firm from a market perspective. We suggest that disruptive changes in a society change the dynamics of liability of foreignness and generate opportunities for foreign companies to optimize their localization strategies. We apply our approach to a large mature market with established international competition : the German new car market. For a comprehensive sample of roughly 1,400 car models from 2003 we estimate the relative turnover disadvantage for all major foreign manufacturers. We find that most foreign producers have managed to overcome liabilities of foreignness in Germany through firm-specific advantages. Still, some face significant challenges. A submarket analysis shows that home market advantages are more deeply rooted in the Western part of Germany and that foreign competitors find a more accessible competitive environment in Eastern Germany. Therefore, East Germany is a superior platform for deploying effective and efficient countervailing strategies. Moreover, we identify a broader rationale to engage early and decisively in untapped but promising markets like China.
|Date of creation:||2005|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.zew.de/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brownstone, David & Bunch, David S. & Train, Kenneth, 2000.
"Joint mixed logit models of stated and revealed preferences for alternative-fuel vehicles,"
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological,
Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 315-338, June.
- Brownstone, David & Bunch, David S & Train, Kenneth, 1999. "Joint mixed logit models of stated and revealed preferences for alternative-fuel vehicles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt45f996hh, University of California Transportation Center.
- Brownston, David & Bunch, David S. & Train, Kenneth, 1999. "Joint mixed logit models of stated and revealed preferences for alternative-fuel vehicles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7rf7s3nx, University of California Transportation Center.
- repec:bla:restud:v:68:y:2001:i:4:p:811-48 is not listed on IDEAS
- Miller, Stewart R. & Richards, Malika, 2002. "Liability of foreignness and membership in a regional economic group: Analysis of the European Union," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 323-337.
- Yves Doz & C K Prahalad, 1984. "Patterns of Strategic Control Within Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 15(2), pages 55-72, June.
- Frank Verboven, 2002. "Quality-Based Price Discrimination and Tax Incidence: Evidence from Gasoline and Diesel Cars," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(2), pages 275-297, Summer.
- Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 1998. "Multinational Enterprises and Public Policy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 115-136, March.
- Michael D Lord & Annette L Ranft, 2000. "Organizational Learning About New International Markets: Exploring the Internal Transfer of Local Market Knowledge," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(4), pages 573-589, December.
- DeYoung, Robert & Nolle, Daniel E, 1996. "Foreign-Owned Banks in the United States: Earning Market Share or Buying It?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 622-36, November.
- Rosen, Sherwin, 1974. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(1), pages 34-55, Jan.-Feb..
- Markus Diehl, 2001. "International Trade in Intermediate Inputs: The Case of the Automobile Industry," Kiel Working Papers 1027, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Sofka, Wolfgang & Schmidt, Tobias, 2004.
"I Like The Way You Move: An Empirical Investigation into the Mechanisms Behind First Mover and Follower Strategies,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
04-87, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Wolfgang Sofka & Tobias Schmidt, 2005. "I Like the Way you Move - An Empirical Investigation into the Mechanisms Behind First Mover and Follower Strategies," Industrial Organization 0506010, EconWPA.
- Srilata Zaheer & Akbar Zaheer, 1997. "Country Effects on Information Seeking in Global Electronic Networks," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(1), pages 77-100, March.
- Luo, Yadong & Shenkar, Oded & Nyaw, Mee-Kau, 2002. "Mitigating liabilities of foreignness: Defensive versus offensive approaches," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 283-300.
- Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Frank Verboven, 1998.
"The Evolution of Price Dispersion in the European Car Market,"
NBER Working Papers
6818, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Verboven, Frank, 1998. "The Evolution of Price Dispersion in the European Car Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 2029, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jürgens, Ulrich, 2003. "Characteristics of the European automotive system: Is there a distinctive European approach?," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Knowledge, Production Systems and Work SP III 2003-301, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
- Lenn Gomes & Kannan Ramaswamy, 1999. "An Empirical Examination of the Form of the Relationship Between Multinationality and Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 30(1), pages 173-187, March.
- Zaheer, Srilata, 2002. "The liability of foreignness, redux: a commentary," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 351-358.
- Berkovec, James & Rust, John, 1985. "A nested logit model of automobile holdings for one vehicle households," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 275-285, August.
- Kendall Roth & Allen J Morrison, 1990. "An Empirical Analysis of the Integration-Responsiveness Framework in Global Industries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(4), pages 541-564, December.
- Salvador Gil Pareja, 2001. "Pricing to market in European automobile exports to OECD countries: a panel data approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(14), pages 1845-1856.
- Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Frank Verboven, 2004. "Cross-country price dispersion in the euro era: a case study of the European car market," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 19(40), pages 483-521, October.
- Verboven, Frank, 2002. "Testing for 'Monopoly' Market Power When Products Are Differentiated in Quality," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 70(1), pages 115-33, January.
- Koolen, Simon & Taminiau, Yvette & Faber, Coen, 2005. "Monti and Market Dynamics:: The Strategy of a National Car Importer," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 413-425, August.
- Warren J Bilkey & Erik Nes, 1982. "Country-of-Origin Effects on Product Evaluations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 13(1), pages 89-100, March.
- Eden, Lorraine & Molot, Maureen Appel, 2002. "Insiders, outsiders and host country bargains," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 359-388.
- Petersen, Bent & Pedersen, Torben, 2002. "Coping with liability of foreignness: Different learning engagements of entrant firms," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 339-350.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:4567. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.