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Beyond Normal Form Invariance : First Mover Advantage in Two-Stage Games with or without Predictable Cheap Talk


  • Hammond, Peter J.

    (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)


Von Neumann (1928) not only introduced a fairly general version of the extensive form game concept. He also hypothesized that only the normal form was relevant to rational play. Yet even in Battle of the Sexes, this hypothesis seems contradicted by players' actual behaviour in experiments. Here a refined Nash equilibrium is proposed for games where one player moves first, and the only other player moves second without knowing the first move. The refinement relies on a tacit understanding of the only credible and straightforward perfect Bayesian equilibrium in a corresponding game allowing a predictable direct form of cheap talk.

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  • Hammond, Peter J., 2008. "Beyond Normal Form Invariance : First Mover Advantage in Two-Stage Games with or without Predictable Cheap Talk," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 835, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:wrk:warwec:835

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