So Much Reform, So Little Change; Building-Level Obstacles to Urban School Reform
This paper addresses the poor payoff from most attempts to reform urban schools, especially bottom-tier urban schools. Based on observations of schools undergoing reform in Chicago, the paper develops a typology of reasons why programs fail and then suggests that reformers ordinarily underestimate the salience of social, political, and organizational obstacles to change. Reformers seem to learn little from past attempts at reform, perhaps because of the way they conceptualize the process of change.
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