Employment growth and gender-specific entrepreneurial externalities in cities
Recent theories of economic development view learning processes associated with knowledge externalities as the engines of economic growth. As suggested by Marshall (1920), entrepreneurs congregate next to one another to learn from each other. However, cities may differ in the generation and transmission of entrepreneurial ideas and, therefore, both entrepreneurial externalities and economic growth vary across cities. This process may be conditioned by gender. Indeed, empirical evidence exists that the characteristics of business owners that influence knowledge externalities â€“ such as access to research and development, level of education and experience, among others â€“ differ by gender. In this paper, we examine the effect of gender-specific entrepreneurial externalities, measured by the spatial concentration of male and female entrepreneurs (separately) across cities, on urban employment growth between 1980 and 2007. This paperâ€™s econometric model and choice of control variables follow the city growth literature, which exploits the availability of panel data for metropolitan areas by introducing area fixed effects in the urban growth equation and using start-of-period values to reduce the potential for simultaneity bias (reverse causality).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p1161. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.