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Beyond market access: Trade-related measures for the least developed countries. What strategy?


  • Ana Luiza Cortez


This paper assesses the effectiveness of non-tariff special and differential treatment (SDT) offered exclusively to the least developed countries by WTO agreements. SDTs are inefficient in at least four aspects. First, they are not easily accessed as they require a certain level of institutional capacity. Second, when accessible they either need to be complemented by other policy interventions or are offset by measures taken elsewhere. Third, some do not respond to LDC needs. Fourth, many are too vaguely defined to provide concrete benefits. Effectiveness can be enhanced by increased LDC ownership and improved policy coherence by trading and development partners.

Suggested Citation

  • Ana Luiza Cortez, 2011. "Beyond market access: Trade-related measures for the least developed countries. What strategy?," Working Papers 109, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  • Handle: RePEc:une:wpaper:109

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hausmann, Ricardo & Panizza, Ugo, 2003. "On the determinants of Original Sin: an empirical investigation," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(7), pages 957-990, December.
    2. Graciela L. Kaminsky & Carmen M. Reinhart & Carlos A. Végh, 2005. "When It Rains, It Pours: Procyclical Capital Flows and Macroeconomic Policies," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2004, Volume 19, pages 11-82 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1993. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(1), pages 108-151, March.
    4. Serge Jeanneau & Camilo E Tovar, 2006. "Domestic bond markets in Latin America: achievements and challenges," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, June.
    5. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 2003. "Whither reform? Towards a new agenda for Latin America," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    6. repec:idb:idbbks:347 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Barry Eichengreen, 2010. "Global Imbalances and the Lessons of Bretton Woods," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262514141, January.
    8. José Antonio Ocampo, 2005. "A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability," Working Papers 1, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    9. Rob Vos & Roberto Frenkel & José Antonio Ocampo & José Gabriel Palma & Manuel Marfán & Jaime Ros & Lance Taylor & Nelson Correa & Mario Cimoli, 2005. "Beyond Reforms: Structural Dynamics and Macroeconomic Vulnerability," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 59518 edited by José Antonio Ocampo, February.
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    More about this item


    special and differential treatment; least developed countries; World Trade Organization; Uruguay Round; technical assistance; accession; multilateral trade regime; institutional capacity; enhanced integrated framework;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • O24 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy

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