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Apertura comercial, productividad, empleo y salarios: Un análisis por diferencias-en-diferencias


  • Adriana Peluffo

    () (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)


This paper analyzes the effects of increased competition resulting from the creation of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) on productivity, employment and wages for the Uruguayan manufacturing sector at the plant level. We use impact evaluation techniques –which are not common in trade reform studies– namely matching and difference-in-differences estimation for the period 1988-1995. The definition of an appropriate control group is a big challenge and it may be improved by the use of matching procedures. We define a set of “tradable” and “non-tradable” industries according to the level and stability of the import penetration and export orientation ratio of the industries. We further explore on the behavior of plants belonging to the export oriented and import competing sectors. One of the most robust findings is that increased trade liberalization seems to improve total factor productivity with a greater effect on plants belonging to the import competing sector. Furthermore, we find reductions in employment driven mainly by the decrease in blue collars, increases in wages and a reduction in the wage gap between white and blue collars as a result of increased trade exposure. Thus, the increase in productivity along with the unemployment of unskilled workers would indicate a room for training, labour and social policies in order to countervail the negative impact of trade liberalization on less qualified workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Adriana Peluffo, 2012. "Apertura comercial, productividad, empleo y salarios: Un análisis por diferencias-en-diferencias," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 12-11, Instituto de Economía - IECON.
  • Handle: RePEc:ulr:wpaper:dt-11-12

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David H. Autor & Susan N. Houseman, 2010. "Do Temporary-Help Jobs Improve Labor Market Outcomes for Low-Skilled Workers? Evidence from "Work First"," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 96-128, July.
    2. Weller, Jürgen, 2007. "La inserción laboral de los jóvenes: características, tensiones y desafíos," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    3. Rodrigo Arim & Matías Brum & Andrés Dean & Martín Leites & Gonzalo Salas, 2013. "Movilidad de ingreso y trampas de pobreza: nueva evidencia para los países del Cono sur," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 28(1), pages 3-38.
    4. Mariana Marchionni & Germán Bet & Ana Pacheco, 2007. "Empleo, Educación y Entorno Social de los Jóvenes: Una Nueva Fuente de Información," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0061, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    5. Fabio Berton & Francesco Devicienti & Lia Pacelli, 2007. "Temporary jobs: Port of entry, Trap, or just Unobserved Heterogeneity?," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 68, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    6. Lea Cassar, 2010. "Revisiting Informality: Evidence from Employment Characteristics and Job Satisfaction in Chile," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp041, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    7. Magnac, Thierry, 2000. "Subsidised Training and Youth Employment: Distinguishing Unobserved Heterogeneity from State Dependence in Labour Market Histories," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(466), pages 805-837, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ruth Marcela Aparicio, 2014. "Terms of trade and non-traditional exports: a microeconometric analysis," Investigación & Desarrollo 0714, Universidad Privada Boliviana, revised Nov 2014.

    More about this item


    Trade policy; Productivity; Employment; Wages;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

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