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Component-wise AdaBoost Algorithms for High-dimensional Binary Classi fication and Class Probability Prediction


  • Tae-Hwy Lee

    () (Department of Economics, University of California Riverside)

  • Jianghao Chu

    () (UCR)

  • Aman Ullah

    () (UCR)


Freund and Schapire (1997) introduced "Discrete AdaBoost" (DAB) which has been mysteriously effective for the high-dimensional binary classi cation or binary prediction. In an effort to understand the myth, Friedman, Hastie and Tibshirani (FHT, 2000) show that DAB can be understood as statistical learning which builds an additive logistic regression model via Newton-like updating minimization of the exponential loss. From this statistical point of view, FHT proposed three modi fications of DAB, namely, Real AdaBoost (RAB), LogitBoost (LB), and Gentle AdaBoost (GAB). All of DAB, RAB, LB, GAB solve for the logistic regression via different algorithmic designs and different objective functions. The RAB algorithm uses class probability estimates to construct real-valued contributions of the weak learner, LB is an adaptive Newton algorithm by stagewise optimization of the Bernoulli likelihood, and GAB is an adaptive Newton algorithm via stagewise optimization of the exponential loss. The same authors of FHT published an influential textbook, The Elements of Statistical Learn- ing (ESL, 2001 and 2008). A companion book An Introduction to Statistical Learning (ISL) by James et al. (2013) was published with applications in R. However, both ESL and ISL (e.g., sections 4.5 and 4.6) do not cover these four AdaBoost algorithms while FHT provided some simulation and empirical studies to compare these methods. Given numerous potential applications, we believe it would be useful to collect the R libraries of these AdaBoost algorithms, as well as more recently developed extensions to Ad- aBoost for probability prediction with examples and illustrations. Therefore, the goal of this chapter is to do just that, i.e., (i) to provide a user guide of these alternative AdaBoost algorithms with step-by-step tutorial of using R (in a way similar to ISL, e.g., Section 4.6), (ii) to compare AdaBoost with alternative machine learning classi fication tools such as the deep neural network (DNN), logistic regression with LASSO and SIM-RODEO, and (iii) to demonstrate the empirical applications in economics, such as prediction of business cycle turning points and directional prediction of stock price indexes. We revisit Ng (2014) who used DAB for prediction of the business cycle turning points by comparing the results from RAB, LB, GAB, DNN, logistic regression and SIM-RODEO.

Suggested Citation

  • Tae-Hwy Lee & Jianghao Chu & Aman Ullah, 2018. "Component-wise AdaBoost Algorithms for High-dimensional Binary Classi fication and Class Probability Prediction," Working Papers 201907, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucr:wpaper:201907

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    AdaBoost; R; Binary classi cation; Logistic regression; DAB; RAB; LB; GAB; DNN;

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