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10 ans après la réforme du Welfare américain

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  • Hélène Périvier

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

Abstract

Depuis la fin des années 1980, l’aide sociale américaine a changé. La montée en charge du crédit d’impôt, EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit)1, qui associe le droit à l’aide publique au devoir de travailler, a enclenché le passage du Welfare au Workfare. Le vote du Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), le 22 août 1996, a entériné cette transition. Les fondements de l’aide sociale ont été bouleversés, Bill Clinton en appelant à la fin du Welfare traditionnel (« The end of the Welfare as we know it »). Les dispositifs sociaux, qui pour certains dataient des années 1930, ont laissé place à d’autres, qui exigent des bénéficiaires une implication sur le marché du travail. Dix ans après son vote, le bilan du nouveau dispositif est l’objet de controverses. Certains voient dans ces orientations de l’État providence la clé de voûte d’une politique efficace de lutte contre la pauvreté. D’autres, plus sceptiques, dénoncent les effets pervers d’une politique sociale qui laisse de côté des personnes inemployables et dont les bons résultats dépendent du dynamisme du marché du travail. Ce débat permet d’ouvrir des pistes de réflexion pour la France (...).

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  • Hélène Périvier, 2007. "10 ans après la réforme du Welfare américain," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/3465, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/3465
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