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Inequality and Growth Revisited

Author

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  • Barro, Robert J.

    () (Harvard University)

Abstract

This paper updates and extends the work of Barro (2000). International data confirm the presence of the Kuznets curve-an inverse-U shape relationship between income inequality and per capita GDP-that is relatively stable from the 1960s into the 2000s. The direct effect of international openness on income inequality is also found to be positive. On the other hand, a cross-country-growth equation shows a negative effect of income inequality on economic growth, holding fixed a familiar set of other explanatory variables. This effect diminishes as per capita GDP rises and may be positive for the richest countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Barro, Robert J., 2008. "Inequality and Growth Revisited," Working Papers on Regional Economic Integration 11, Asian Development Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbrei:0011
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    1. repec:eee:ecosys:v:42:y:2018:i:2:p:248-268 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Alcalá, Francisco, 2009. "Time, Quality and Growth," UMUFAE Economics Working Papers 4811, DIGITUM. Universidad de Murcia.
    3. repec:eee:eecrev:v:101:y:2018:i:c:p:605-624 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Roberto Dell'Anno & Adalgiso Amendola, 2015. "Social Exclusion and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation in European Economies," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 61(2), pages 274-301, June.
    5. Agnello, Luca & Mallick, Sushanta K. & Sousa, Ricardo M., 2012. "Financial reforms and income inequality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 583-587.
    6. Muinelo-Gallo, Leonel & Roca-Sagalés, Oriol, 2013. "Joint determinants of fiscal policy, income inequality and economic growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 814-824.
    7. G.A. Diah Utari, 2014. "Growth and Inequality in Indonesia: Does Kuznets Curve Hold?," EcoMod2014 7353, EcoMod.
    8. Alokesh Barua & Aparna Sawhney, 2015. "Development Policy Implications for Growth and Regional Inequality in a Small Open Economy: The Indian Case," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 695-709, August.
    9. Madsen, Jakob B. & Islam, Md. Rabiul & Doucouliagos, Hristos, 2018. "Inequality, financial development and economic growth in the OECD, 1870–2011," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 605-624.
    10. Kang, Jong Woo, 2015. "Interrelation between Growth and Inequality," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 447, Asian Development Bank.
    11. Acar, Sevil & Dogruel, Fatma, 2012. "Sources of inequality in selected MENA countries," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 276-285.
    12. Echevarría, Cruz A., 2012. "Income tax progressivity, physical capital, aggregate uncertainty and long-run growth in an OLG economy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 955-974.
    13. Töngür, Ünal & Elveren, Adem, 2013. "The Impact of Military Spending and Income Inequality on Economic Growth in Turkey, 1963-2008," EY International Congress on Economics I (EYC2013), October 24-25, 2013, Ankara, Turkey 251, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association.
    14. Gruber, Lloyd & Kosack, Stephen, 2014. "The tertiary tilt: education and inequality in the developing world," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 54202, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    15. Michel Dumont & Nikolina Stojanovska & Ludo Cuyvers, 2011. "World inequality, globalisation, technology and labour market institutions," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 257-272, June.
    16. Choudhry, Misbah T. & Elhorst, J. Paul, 2010. "Demographic transition and economic growth in China, India and Pakistan," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 218-236, September.
    17. Benazzo, Piero, 2010. "Equity Criteria as Instrument to Ensure Sustainability of Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency: A Correlation Hidden by Sources of Confounding as Key for Sorting Out the Global Economic Crisis," MPRA Paper 23678, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Chambers, Dustin & Dhongde, Shatakshee, 2016. "Convergence in income distributions: Evidence from a panel of countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 262-270.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    inequality; growth; Kuznets curve; Gini coefficient;

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

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