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Incentivo perverso das reservas internacionais: O caso das empresas exportadoras brasileiras


  • Werther Vervloet

    () (Department of Economics PUC-Rio)

  • Marcio Gomes Pinto Garcia

    () (Department of Economics PUC-Rio)


Starting with Lehman Brother’s demise in September 2008, the Brazilian real fell 42% vis-à-vis the US dollar. Such large exchange rate depreciation would typically cheer exporters up. However, it was later found that many export firms, including multibillion dollar ones, had suffered large financial losses. These capital losses came not from garden variety currency mismatches, but from complex derivative products. We analyze the problems created by this misuse of derivatives by export companies in Brazil in 2008. Besides a careful description of the most relevant cases and of the derivative that caused the problems, we also present evidence that the derivative was not used as a hedge, but as a speculative instrument. The Brazilian case—just one among many where export firms in emerging markets sold USD short much beyond the point necessary to hedge their USD revenues—shows that the benefits of international reserves accumulation by the government may be jeopardized by perverse incentives generated to the private sector. We discuss and recommend a few prudential regulation measures.

Suggested Citation

  • Werther Vervloet & Marcio Gomes Pinto Garcia, 2009. "Incentivo perverso das reservas internacionais: O caso das empresas exportadoras brasileiras," Textos para discussão 564, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
  • Handle: RePEc:rio:texdis:564

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Martin D.D. Evans & Richard K. Lyons, 2017. "Order Flow and Exchange Rate Dynamics," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Studies in Foreign Exchange Economics, chapter 6, pages 247-290 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
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    7. Takatoshi Ito & Yuko Hashimoto, 2008. "Price Impacts of Deals and Predictability of the Exchange Rate Movements," NBER Chapters,in: International Financial Issues in the Pacific Rim: Global Imbalances, Financial Liberalization, and Exchange Rate Policy (NBER-EASE Volume 17), pages 177-217 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    More about this item


    International Reserves; Derivatives; Financial Hedge; Export Firms. JEL Codes: F41; G01; G15; G32; 34; G38.;

    JEL classification:

    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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