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Les clusters et les reseaux comme fondements de la dynamique d'innovation dans l'industrie biopharmaceutique (Clusters and networks as the foundations of innovation dynamics in the biopharmaceutical industry)

  • Abdelillah HAMDOUCH



  • Marc-Hubert DEPRET



Pour rendre compte des phénomènes de réticularisation et d’agglomération croissantes des activités d’innovation, de nombreux travaux empiriques et théoriques dans diverses disciplines (économie, sociologie, géographie, management) ont souligné l’importance des logiques de proximité. C’est dans ce cadre que s’est forgée l’idée que c’est au sein des clusters que se gagne désormais la compétition induite par les dynamiques d’innovation soutenue et de globalisation rapide, notamment dans les secteurs high-tech. Toutefois, en dépit d’une très large diffusion, cette conviction manque aujourd’hui encore d’assise théorique et empirique. À partir du cas de la biopharmacie, cet article cherche ainsi à montrer que si les clusters sont une des conditions permissives du processus de production et de diffusion de l’innovation, ils n’en constituent pas pour autant une condition suffisante, ni même forcément la forme organisationnelle et spatiale la plus adaptée, en particulier dans un contexte de plus en plus incertain et globalisé. In order to explain why innovation activities are increasingly structuring through networking and agglomeration dynamics, numerous empirical and theoretical works in various disciplines (economics, geography, sociology, management) have stressed the crucial role of spatial proximity. Following this conviction, the idea has emerged that “clusters” has become the key competitive tools within a context of sustained innovation dynamics and rapid globalization, notably in high-tech industries. However, despite its wide spread among academics and practitioners, this conviction still lacks solid theoretical and empirical foundations. Drawing from the case of biopharmaceuticals, this paper aims at showing that if clusters are one of the keys of the processes underlying innovative activities and the diffusion of innovations, they are far from constituting a sufficient condition or even more necessarily the appropriate organizational and spatial form of these processes, particularly in a context of globalization and growing uncertainties.

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Paper provided by Réseau de Recherche sur l’Innovation. / Research Network on Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 8.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Documents de travail du RRI, 2009
Handle: RePEc:rii:rridoc:8
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