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Propriété industrielle et biotechnologies :Application au règne végétal (Industrial property and biotechnology: an application to the plant kingdom)

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  • Philippe Chagnon

    () (labrii, ULCO)

Abstract

Mises en place progressivement au cours du XXeme siècle en Europe et aux Etats-Unis. Elles ont suivi les avancées scientifiques réalisées à partir des premières recherches en génétique et ont pris leur essor après le développement des outils biologiques et techniques moléculaires apparus à la fin des années 1960. Nous distinguons trois périodes dans la création de matériel végétal qui ont mobilisé des acteurs spécifiques et auxquelles correspondent des systèmes de protection distincts : les paysans procédaient à une sélection empirique des végétaux pendant la période traditionnelle et n’obtenaient pas de monopoles sur le résultat de leur activité ; les avancées scientifiques et techniques (lois de l’hérédité, biotechnologies, etc.) caractérisent la période conventionnelle, au cours de laquelle les institutions publiques et les organismes agricoles deviennent des acteurs essentiels et où se construit le système de protection par certificat d’obtention végétale. Enfin, la période moderne est marquée par l’émergence des technosciences, impulsées par les firmes biotechnologiques qui agissent pour renforcer les droits privatifs (brevets sur des organismes vivants) afin de rentabiliser leurs investissements. In this document, we study the forms of protection of biological innovations developed during the 20th century in Europe and in the United States. They have followed the results of the scientific progress based on the first research in genetics and have gained ground with the creation of biologic tools and molecular techniques at the end of the 1960s. We present three periods in the creation of vegetal material, which have involved specific actors and to which correspond distinct systems of protection: during the traditional period, farmers empirically selected plants and did not obtain monopolies on their achievements. The conventional period is characterized by scientific and technical progress (heredity laws, biotechnology, etc.), the emergence of public institutions and agriculture organisms as main actors, and the development of a system of protection based on plant variety protection certificates. Finally, during the modern period, technosciences are developed with the support of biotechnological firms, that act to reinforce privative rights (patents on living parts) in order to recoup their investments.

Suggested Citation

  • Philippe Chagnon, 2007. "Propriété industrielle et biotechnologies :Application au règne végétal (Industrial property and biotechnology: an application to the plant kingdom)," Working Papers 148, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.
  • Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:148
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    industrial property; biotechnology; plant kingdom; biological innovations;

    JEL classification:

    • L52 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
    • O25 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Industrial Policy

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