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Model Specification Tests Based on Artificial Linear Regressions


  • Russell Davidson
  • James G. MacKinnon


This paper develops an extremely general procedure for performing a wide variety of model specification tests by running artificial linear regressions. Inference may then be based either on a Lagrange Multiplier statistic from the procedure, or on conventional asymptotic t or F tests based on the artificial regressions. This procedure allows us to develop non-nested hypothesis tests for any set of models which attempt to explain the same dependent variable(s), even when the error specifications of the competing models differ.

Suggested Citation

  • Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 1981. "Model Specification Tests Based on Artificial Linear Regressions," Working Papers 426, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:426

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bettin, Giulia & Lucchetti, Riccardo & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2012. "Endogeneity and sample selection in a model for remittances," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 370-384.
    2. MacKinnon, J G, 1989. "Heteroskedasticity-Robust Tests for Structural Change," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 77-92.
    3. Y. K. Tse & Z. L. Yang, 2004. "Tests of Functional Form and Heteroscedasticity," Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings 424, Econometric Society.
    4. Li Dong & Le Canh, 2010. "Nonlinearity and Spatial Lag Dependence: Tests Based on Double-Length Regressions," Journal of Time Series Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-18, June.
    5. Benjamin Born & Jörg Breitung, 2011. "Simple regression‐based tests for spatial dependence," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 14(2), pages 330-342, July.
    6. Murphy, Anthony, 1996. "Simple LM tests of mis-specification for ordered logit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 137-141, August.
    7. Davidson, R. & MacKinnon & J.G., 1999. "Artificial Regressions," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 99a04, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
    8. Badi Baltagi & Long Liu, 2014. "Testing for spatial lag and spatial error dependence using double length artificial regressions," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 477-486, May.
    9. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G, 1988. "Double Length Artificial Regressions," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 50(2), pages 203-217, May.
    10. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1989. "Testing for Consistency using Artificial Regressions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(03), pages 363-384, December.
    11. McAleer, Michael, 1994. " Sherlock Holmes and the Search for Truth: A Diagnostic Tale," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(4), pages 317-370, December.
    12. Godwin Nwaobi, 2002. "A vector error correction and nonnested modeling of money demand function in Nigeria," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(4), pages 1-8.
    13. Marie-Estelle Binet & Fabrizio Carlevaro & Michel Paul, 2014. "Estimation of Residential Water Demand with Imperfect Price Perception," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 59(4), pages 561-581, December.
    14. Baltagi, Badi H., 1997. "Testing linear and loglinear error components regressions against Box-Cox alternatives," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 63-68, April.
    15. Dowrick, Steve & Dunlop, Yvonne & Quiggin, John, 2003. "Social indicators and comparisons of living standards," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 501-529, April.
    16. Bontemps, Christian & Meddahi, Nour, 2005. "Testing normality: a GMM approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 149-186, January.
    17. William H. Greene & David A. Hensher, 2008. "Modeling Ordered Choices: A Primer and Recent Developments," Working Papers 08-26, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    18. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G, 1998. "Graphical Methods for Investigating the Size and Power of Hypothesis Tests," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 66(1), pages 1-26, January.
    19. Robin Pope, 2009. "Risk starvation contributes to dementias and depressions: Whiffs of danger are the antidote," Bonn Econ Discussion Papers bgse28_2009, University of Bonn, Germany.
    20. West, Kenneth D & McCracken, Michael W, 1998. "Regression-Based Tests of Predictive Ability," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 817-840, November.
    21. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 1988. "Specification Tests Based on Artificial Regressions," Working Papers 707, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    22. W. Yang, 1999. "The Demand for and Supply of Shares. An Empirical Study of the Limit Order Book on the ASX," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 99-03, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    23. Le, Canh Quang & Li, Dong, 2008. "Double-Length Regression tests for testing functional forms and spatial error dependence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 253-257, December.
    24. Hosoya, Yuzo & Terasaka, Takahiro, 2009. "Inference on transformed stationary time series," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 151(2), pages 129-139, August.

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    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure
    • L68 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Appliances; Furniture; Other Consumer Durables


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