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Importance du prix du pétrole dans le prix du transport de marchandises

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  • Tristan Chevroulet

    (University of California)

Abstract

Le pétrole fournit la quasi-totalité du carburant pour les transports. Or le prix du pétrole brut (FOB-Free on board) ne constitue pour l’instant qu’une petite partie des coûts du transport, moins du cinquième. Les quatre cinquièmes des coûts du transport proviennent des frais d’exploitation, des salaires et de la fiscalité. Néanmoins, si la raréfaction du pétrole venait à faire exploser les coûts du carburant, elle produirait des effets négatifs forts. Une multiplication par 8 du prix du pétrole (par rapport à 2007) doublerait le coût des transports de marchandises. Toutefois la hausse de coûts serait suffisamment uniforme pour que les exploitants puissent les répercuter sur les clients sans que la concurrence ne soit profondément modifiée. Les petits exploitants ne pouvant pas s’organiser pour optimiser les chargements et les itinéraires seraient les plus menacés. La mobilité des personnes serait par contre très touchée sur deux aspects : la voiture particulière et l’aviation. Le cas de l’aviation est bien connu (surtaxes kérosène), par contre le problème du transport individuel –qui consomme environ la même quantité de carburant que l’aviation par passager et par kilomètre- risque d’aboutir à une société où seuls les citoyens les plus aisés restent réellement mobiles. Importance of Oil Price in Freight Transport Costs Oil is the main component of transport fuel. As for now, however, crude oil price (FOB-Free on board) accounts for less than a fifth of transport costs. Operating costs, wages and taxes cause the remaining four fifths. Nevertheless, oil scarcity may raise fuel costs to such a level that transport companies and citizen may suffer significant adverse impacts. A multiplication by 8 of the price of oil (compared to 2007) would double road transport cost. Yet, the rise would be global, which would enable operators to shift the cost to their clients without suffering changes in competition. Still, small operators that would not be in a position to optimize truck loads and routes would be threatened. Major oil price rise would mainly affect two aspects of mobility: aviation and private motoring. Air companies have added a special oil charge to ticket cost while changes in private motoring, which uses approximately as much fuel as air per passenger – kilometre, may lead to a situation where only the wealthiest citizens may keep driving.

Suggested Citation

  • Tristan Chevroulet, 2008. "Importance du prix du pétrole dans le prix du transport de marchandises," OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers 2008/4, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:itfaaa:2008/4-fr
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/235522325515
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