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Hybrid Learning Environments: Merging Learning and Work Processes to Facilitate Knowledge Integration and Transitions


  • Ilya Zitter


  • Aimée Hoeve



This paper deals with the problematic nature of the transition between education and the workplace. A smooth transition between education and the workplace requires learners to develop an integrated knowledge base, but this is problematic as most educational programmes offer knowledge and experiences in a fragmented manner, scattered over a variety of subjects, modules and (work) experiences. To overcome this problem, we propose a design approach and shifting the educational focus of attention from individual learners to learning environments. The broader notion of learning environments facilitates transitions by establishing horizontal connections between schools and the workplace. The main argument of this paper is that combining or connecting aspects of school-based settings only is not sufficient to ensure learners will develop an integrated knowledge base. The concept and examples of “hybrid learning environment” show how formal, school-based learning and workplace experiences can be closely connected. The paper offers a framework of four coherent perspectives that can help to understand the complex nature of such environments and to design hybrid learning environments: the “agency perspective”, the “spatial perspective”, the “temporal perspective”, and the “instrumental perspective”. The framework is applied to three cases taken from vocational education in the Netherlands to describe what hybrid learning environments look like in contemporary educational practice. Le présent document traite de la délicate transition entre les études et la vie active. Pour vivre cette transition dans de bonnes conditions, les apprenants doivent disposer d’une base de connaissances intégrées. Or dans la plupart des programmes éducatifs, l’acquisition des connaissances et des expériences se fait selon une approche fragmentée en une multitude de sujets, modules et expériences (professionnelles) déconnectés les uns des autres. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous proposons une approche conceptuelle et le passage d’une méthode centrée sur l’apprenant à une méthode centrée sur les environnements d’apprentissage. Se placer dans une perspective, plus large, d’environnements d’apprentissage établit des parallélismes entre l’école et le monde du travail, ce qui facilite la transition de l’un à l’autre. Le principal argument défendu dans ce document est le suivant : se contenter d’associer ou de connecter uniquement des cadres axés sur la scolarité ne suffira pas pour garantir que les apprenants développeront une base de connaissances intégrées. Le concept «d’environnement d’apprentissage hybride » et les exemples de son application sont la preuve qu’un lien entre l’apprentissage formel dispensé dans les écoles et les expériences acquises dans le milieu professionnel. Ce document décompose le concept en quatre perspectives cohérentes susceptibles d’apporter un éclairage sur la nature complexe de ces environnements et de faciliter la conception des environnements d’apprentissage hybrides : la « perspective des acteurs », la « perspective spatiale », la « perspective temporelle » et la « perspective des instruments ». Cette décomposition est appliquée à trois cas empruntés à l’enseignement professionnel au Pays-Bas pour montrer comment se concrétisent les environnements d’apprentissage hybrides dans la pratique pédagogique d’aujourd’hui.

Suggested Citation

  • Ilya Zitter & Aimée Hoeve, 2012. "Hybrid Learning Environments: Merging Learning and Work Processes to Facilitate Knowledge Integration and Transitions," OECD Education Working Papers 81, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:eduaab:81-en
    DOI: 10.1787/5k97785xwdvf-en

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    Cited by:

    1. Burchert, Joanna & Hoeve, Aimée & Kämäräinen, Pekka, 2014. "Interactive Research on Innovations in Vocational Education and Training (VET): Lessons from Dutch and German cases," International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET), European Research Network in Vocational Education and Training (VETNET), European Educational Research Association, vol. 1(2), pages 143-160.
    2. Watanabe, Chihiro & Naveed, Kashif & Neittaanmäki, Pekka, 2017. "Co-evolution between trust in teachers and higher education toward digitally-rich learning environments," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 70-96.

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