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Measuring and Modelling Non-Tariff Distortions with Special Reference to Trade in Agricultural Commodities


  • Peter J. Lloyd


This paper examines issues which have arisen from the growth of non-tariff measures (NTM)s as the preferred instrument of government intervention in commodities markets, especially for agricultural commodities. In order to understand the effects of NTMs and to compare them with tariffs, the paper uses the standard concepts of equivalence and non-equivalence with tariffs . It also establishes and develops a comparison between two instruments called quasi-equivalence which is particularly useful in analysing various differences between the effects of tariffs and non-tariff measures.These differences between tariffs and NTMs have several consequences which no single measure can adequately summarise. Nevertheless, the price effects of NTMs can be captured by using either effective rates of assistance (ERA) or producer subsidy equivalents (PSE)s. When the net percentage form of the PSE is calculated using world prices and allowing for as many input price changes as ... Ce document examine les problèmes provoqués par l'utilisation accrue des mesures non-tarifaires (MNT) devenues l'instrument favori des gouvernements pour intervenir sur les marchés des produits de base, en particulier celui des produits agricoles. Afin de comprendre les effets des MNT et de les comparer avec les tarifs, le document se réfère au concept standard de l'équivalence et de la non-équivalence avec les tarifs. Ce document établit et développe également une comparaison appelé quasi-équivalence entre deux instruments, comparaison particulièrement pertinente pour analyser les nombreuses différences existant entre les effets des mesures tarifaires et non tarifaires.Ces différences entre les tarifs et les MNT ont plusieurs conséquences qu'une seule mesure ne saurait résumer de manière adéquate. Néanmoins, les effets sur les prix MNT peuveut être chiffrés soit en utilisant le taux réel d'assistance (TRA), soit les équivalents de subvention à la production (ESP). Si le ...

Suggested Citation

  • Peter J. Lloyd, 1991. "Measuring and Modelling Non-Tariff Distortions with Special Reference to Trade in Agricultural Commodities," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 40, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:40-en

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