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La réforme du secteur financier en Afrique

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  • Anne Joseph

Abstract

Cette étude concerne six pays d’Afrique subsaharienne : le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, le Ghana, le Mali, l’Ouganda et la Tanzanie, dont elle décrit les politiques de répression financière appliquées jusqu’au milieu ou la fin des années 80 : politique monétaire interventionniste, prédominance des banques publiques et faible régulation prudentielle. Ces politiques se sont traduites par une accumulation d’actifs non performants, un financement privilégié des gouvernements et une dégradation des systèmes de paiement gérés par les banques. Elles n’ont pas permis d’étoffer la fonction d’intermédiation financière du secteur bancaire. Afin de corriger ces dysfonctionnements, dans le cadre de plans d’ajustement structurel recommandés par les institutions de Bretton Woods, les gouvernements des pays concernés ont libéralisé le secteur financier, assoupli la politique monétaire, restructuré les banques et adopté de nouvelles réglementations prudentielles.Le bilan de ces réformes est ... This study describes the financial repression policies — interventionist monetary policy, predominance of state-owned banks and weak prudential regulation — practised until the middle or the end of the 1980s by six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Uganda and Tanzania. These policies resulted in the accumulation of non-performing loans, privileged government financing and breakdown of bank-controlled payment systems. They also prevented growth of financial intermediation in the banking system. In order to correct these malfunctions, the governments concerned liberalised the financial sector, softened their monetary policies, restructured the banks and adopted new prudential regulation within the context of structural adjustment plans recommended by the Bretton Wood institutions.The result of these reforms has been mixed. While the majority of the banks which were not liquidated have regained solvency, they have not become involved in long-term ...

Suggested Citation

  • Anne Joseph, 2002. "La réforme du secteur financier en Afrique," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 190, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:190-fr
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/463385011306
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