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Capital humain, ouverture extérieure et croissance : Estimation sur données de panel d'un modèle à coefficients variables


  • Jean-Claude Berthélemy
  • Sébastien Dessus
  • Aristomene Varoudakis


La littérature récente n'apporte aucune validation économétrique, sur données de panel, de l'hypothèse selon laquelle le capital humain contribue à la croissance. Nous confirmons ce résultat à l'aide d'un échantillon comprenant 83 pays et six périodes entre 1960 et 1990. Cependant, l’estimation sur ces mêmes données de panel de modèles à termes interactifs puis à coefficients variable suggère que la contribution de l'éducation à la croissance dépend du taux d’ouverture commerciale. Ce résultat peut s'expliquer par la variation de la rémunération des facteurs, liée d’une part aux changements de la demande de capital humain induits par les échanges et d’autre part aux changements de l'offre relative de facteurs, qui sont amplifiés dans les économies fermées. Les distorsions qui en résultent dans l'affectation du capital humain aux diverses activités économiques sont susceptibles d'influer sur le taux de croissance ... The innovation of this paper is the proof of a relationship between human capital and growth, using a sample of 83 countries and six time periods between 1960 and 1990. Nonetheless, calculations from both interactive and variable-coefficient models based on these same panel data suggest that the contribution of education to growth depends on the level of commercial opening. This result could be explained by the variation in factor returns linked, on one hand, to trade-induced changes in labour demand and, on the other, to changes in relative factor supply which are amplified in closed economies. Distortions of human-capital allocation are therefore likely to influence the rate of growth ...

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Claude Berthélemy & Sébastien Dessus & Aristomene Varoudakis, 1997. "Capital humain, ouverture extérieure et croissance : Estimation sur données de panel d'un modèle à coefficients variables," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 121, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:121-fr
    DOI: 10.1787/853867736526

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