Revival of mining sector in India: Analysing legislations and royality regime
Impact of fiscal policy at the firm level is a rare field of research. A major lacuna to date is the paucity of studies on the impact of public policy -especially fiscal policy -on the mining firms and their competitiveness. This paper on the mining sector is an attempt to analyse the sector, in particular, at its competitiveness. Against the backdrop of the Planning Commission's High-level Committee Report on National Mineral Policy 2006, and the subsequent Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill, 2011, this paper attempts at the legal and fiscal policy transition in the mining sector of India. The results challenge the popular view that the competitiveness of the mining industry is largely determined by the quality of mine endowments, geological characteristics and production cycle, and highlighted that fiscal policy regime - taxation and royalty regime - that affects the productivity of the mining firms more than the mine-specific factors. Recently, though the legal framework of the mining sector has incorporated the environmental and human developmental aspects in its policy, the fiscal regime related to mining is in a state of flux. Particularly, the current methodology of royalty estimation on an ad valorem basis on the ore, linking to London Metal Exchange (LME) reference Prices, in the non-ferrous non-atomic non-fuel mining sector requires a relook. From the public policy perspective, the royalty estimation should incorporate the mineral value chain and estimate royalty on the basis of concentrate, and in plausible cases, the metal at the end of the mine value chain, after the process of beneficiation and smelting process.