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Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World: The Relationship to Youth Employment, Introduction and Summary

Author

Listed:
  • Jonathan Gruber
  • Kevin Milligan
  • David A. Wise

Abstract

This is the introduction and summary to the fourth phase of an ongoing project on Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World. The first phase described the retirement incentives inherent in plan provisions and documented the strong relationship across countries between social security incentives to retire and the proportion of older persons out of the labor force. The second phase documented the large effects that changing plan provisions would have on the labor force participation of older workers. The third phase demonstrated the consequent fiscal implications that extending labor force participation would have on net program costs--reducing government social security benefit payments and increasing government tax revenues. This volume presents the results of analyses of the relationship between the labor force participation of older persons and the labor force participation of younger persons in twelve countries. Why countries introduced plan provisions that encouraged older persons to leave the labor force is unclear. After the fact, it is now often claimed that these provisions were introduced to provide more jobs for the young, assuming that fewer older persons in the labor force would open up more job opportunities for the young. Now, the same reasoning is often used to argue against efforts in the same countries to reduce or eliminate the incentives for older persons to leave the labor force, claiming that the consequent increase in the employment of older person would reduce the employment of younger persons. The validity of such claims is addressed in this volume.

Suggested Citation

  • Jonathan Gruber & Kevin Milligan & David A. Wise, 2009. "Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World: The Relationship to Youth Employment, Introduction and Summary," NBER Working Papers 14647, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14647
    Note: AG PE LS
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    Cited by:

    1. Bruno Contini, 2009. "Youth Employment in Europe: Institutions and Social Capital Explain Better than Mainstream Economics," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 97, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    2. Zhang, Chuanchuan, 2012. "延迟退休年龄会挤出年轻人就业吗?
      [Will Postponing Retirement Crowd out Youth Employment?]
      ," MPRA Paper 49811, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2012.
    3. Waikei R Lam & Xiaoguang Liu & Alfred Schipke, 2015. "China’s Labor Market in the “New Normal”," IMF Working Papers 15/151, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Kiichi Tokuoka, 2012. "Intergenerational Implications of Fiscal Consolidation in Japan," IMF Working Papers 12/197, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Laun, Tobias & Wallenius, Johanna, 2015. "A life cycle model of health and retirement: The case of Swedish pension reform," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 127-136.
    6. Tobias Laun & Johanna Wallenius, 2016. "Social Insurance and Retirement: A Cross-Country Perspective," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 22, pages 72-92, October.
    7. Helmuth Cremer & Jean-Marie Lozachmeur & Pierre Pestieau, 2008. "Social Security And Retirement Decision: A Positive And Normative Approach ," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 213-233, April.
    8. Bruno Contini, 2012. "Youth employment in Europe: do institutions and social capital explain better than mainstream economics?," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 9(2), pages 247-277, August.
    9. Alexandra Rudolph, 2016. "Pension programs around the world: Determinants of social pension," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 212, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    10. Anders, Forslund & Fredriksson, Peter, 2009. "Income support systems, labour supply incentives and employment – some cross-country evidence," Working Paper Series, Center for Labor Studies 2010:3, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    11. Zhang, Chuanchuan, 2012. "The relationship between elderly employment and youth employment: evidence from China," MPRA Paper 37221, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Rudolph, Alexandra & Priebe, Jan, 2015. "Pension programs around the world: determinants of social pension," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112986, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    13. Adriaan Kalwij & Frederic Vermeulen, 2008. "Health and labour force participation of older people in Europe: What do objective health indicators add to the analysis?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 619-638.
    14. David Wise, 2010. "Facilitating longer working lives: International evidence on why and how," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 47(1), pages 131-149, March.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H3 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor

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