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Exponential Smoothing Model Selection for Forecasting

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  • Baki Billah
  • Maxwell L King

    ()

  • Ralph D Snyder

    ()

  • Anne B Koehler

Abstract

Applications of exponential smoothing to forecast time series usually rely on three basic methods: simple exponential smoothing, trend corrected exponential smoothing and a seasonal variation thereof. A common approach to select the method appropriate to a particular time series is based on prediction validation on a withheld part of the sample using criteria such as the mean absolute percentage error. A second approach is to rely on the most appropriate general case of the three methods. For annual series this is trend corrected exponential smoothing: for sub-annual series it is the seasonal adaptation of trend corrected exponential smoothing. The rationale for this approach is that a general method automatically collapses to its nested counterparts when the pertinent conditions pertain in the data. A third approach may be based on an information criterion when maximum likelihood methods are used in conjunction with exponential smoothing to estimate the smoothing parameters. In this paper, such approaches for selecting the appropriate forecasting method are compared in a simulation study. They are also compared on real time series from the M3 forecasting competition. The results indicate that the information criterion approach appears to provide the best basis for an automated approach to method selection, provided that it is based on Akaike's information criterion.

Suggested Citation

  • Baki Billah & Maxwell L King & Ralph D Snyder & Anne B Koehler, 2005. "Exponential Smoothing Model Selection for Forecasting," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 6/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2005-6
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    File URL: http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/ebs/pubs/wpapers/2005/wp6-05.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
    2. Peter R. Winters, 1960. "Forecasting Sales by Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 6(3), pages 324-342, April.
    3. Bartolomei, Sonia M. & Sweet, Arnold L., 1989. "A note on a comparison of exponential smoothing methods for forecasting seasonal series," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 111-116.
    4. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002. "A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
    5. Ord, J.K. & Koehler, A. & Snyder, R.D., 1995. "Estimation and Prediction for a Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Statistical Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/95, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ralph D Snyder, 2005. "A Pedant's Approach to Exponential Smoothing," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 5/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    2. Kumar, Ranjit & Singh, N.P. & Singh, R.P. & Vasisht, A.K., 2006. "Rural Infrastructure and Agricultural Growth: Interdependence and Variability in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India," Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Indian Society of Agricultural Economics, vol. 61(3).
    3. Kolassa, Stephan, 2011. "Combining exponential smoothing forecasts using Akaike weights," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 238-251, April.
    4. Petropoulos, Fotios & Makridakis, Spyros & Assimakopoulos, Vassilios & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, 2014. "‘Horses for Courses’ in demand forecasting," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 237(1), pages 152-163.
    5. Snyder, Ralph D. & Ord, J. Keith & Beaumont, Adrian, 2012. "Forecasting the intermittent demand for slow-moving inventories: A modelling approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 485-496.
    6. Kourentzes, Nikolaos & Petropoulos, Fotios, 2016. "Forecasting with multivariate temporal aggregation: The case of promotional modelling," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 181(PA), pages 145-153.
    7. Ralph D. Snyder & J. Keith Ord, 2009. "Exponential Smoothing and the Akaike Information Criterion," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/09, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    8. Wang, Jianzhou & Zhu, Suling & Zhang, Wenyu & Lu, Haiyan, 2010. "Combined modeling for electric load forecasting with adaptive particle swarm optimization," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1671-1678.
    9. J Keith Ord & Ralph D Snyder & Anne B Koehler & Rob J Hyndman & Mark Leeds, 2005. "Time Series Forecasting: The Case for the Single Source of Error State Space," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 7/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    10. Ralph Snyder & Adrian Beaumont & J. Keith Ord, 2012. "Intermittent demand forecasting for inventory control: A multi-series approach," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 15/12, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    11. Ashton de Silva & Rob J. Hyndman & Ralph D. Snyder, 2007. "The vector innovation structural time series framework: a simple approach to multivariate forecasting," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/07, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    12. Matthias Vogl & Reiner Leidl, 2016. "Informing management on the future structure of hospital care: an extrapolation of trends in demand and costs in lung diseases," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 17(4), pages 505-517, May.
    13. Hema, M. & Kumar, Ranjit & Singh, N.P., 2007. "Volatile Price and Declining Profitability of Black Pepper in India: Disquieting Future," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 20(1).
    14. Crone, Sven F. & Hibon, Michèle & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, 2011. "Advances in forecasting with neural networks? Empirical evidence from the NN3 competition on time series prediction," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 635-660, July.
    15. Ferbar Tratar, Liljana & Mojškerc, Blaž & Toman, Aleš, 2016. "Demand forecasting with four-parameter exponential smoothing," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 181(PA), pages 162-173.
    16. Taylor, James W., 2008. "Exponentially weighted information criteria for selecting among forecasting models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 513-524.
    17. Kolassa, Stephan, 2011. "Combining exponential smoothing forecasts using Akaike weights," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 238-251.
    18. Francisco Zamora-Martínez & Pablo Romeu & Paloma Botella-Rocamora & Juan Pardo, 2013. "Towards Energy Efficiency: Forecasting Indoor Temperature via Multivariate Analysis," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(9), pages 1-21, September.
    19. Mauro Bernardi & Lea Petrella, 2015. "Multiple seasonal cycles forecasting model: the Italian electricity demand," Statistical Methods & Applications, Springer;Società Italiana di Statistica, vol. 24(4), pages 671-695, November.
    20. Fildes, Robert & Petropoulos, Fotios, 2015. "Simple versus complex selection rules for forecasting many time series," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(8), pages 1692-1701.
    21. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B., 2006. "Another look at measures of forecast accuracy," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 679-688.
    22. Fildes, Robert & Petropoulos, Fotios, 2013. "An evaluation of simple forecasting model selection rules," MPRA Paper 51772, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    23. Svetunkov, Ivan & Kourentzes, Nikolaos, 2015. "Complex Exponential Smoothing," MPRA Paper 69394, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Model Selection; Exponential Smoothing; Information Criteria; Prediction; Forecast Validation;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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