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Limited Insurance Portability and Job Mobility: The Effects of Public Policy on Job-Lock

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  • Gruber, J.
  • Madrian, B.C.

Abstract

The link between health insurance and the workplace in the U.S. has led to concern over the possibility of insurance-induced reductions in job mobility or 'job-lock". Designing health insurance reforms which retain employer-based insurance coverage but mitigate the extent of job-lock requires an understanding of the policy dimensions to which job-lock is most receptive. We study a policy of limited insurance portability which has been adopted by a number of states and the federal government over the last 20 years. These "continuation of coverage' mandates grant individuals the right to continue purchasing health insurance through their former employers for some period of time after leaving their jobs. We find that the passage of these mandates caused a significant increase in the job mobility of prime age male workers. This suggests that a sizeable share of job-lock arises from short run concerns over portability rather than from long run problems.
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Suggested Citation

  • Gruber, J. & Madrian, B.C., 1994. "Limited Insurance Portability and Job Mobility: The Effects of Public Policy on Job-Lock," Working papers 94-03, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:mit:worpap:94-03
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gruber, J., 1992. "State Mandated Benefits and Employer Provided Health Insurance," Working papers 92-18, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    2. Brigitte C. Madrian, 1994. "Employment-Based Health Insurance and Job Mobility: Is there Evidence of Job-Lock?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(1), pages 27-54.
    3. Jonathan Gruber & Brigitte C. Madrian, 1996. "Health Insurance and Early Retirement: Evidence from the Availability of Continuation Coverage," NBER Chapters, in: Advances in the Economics of Aging, pages 115-146, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Ann P. Bartel & George J. Borjas, 1977. "Middle-Age Job Mobility: Its Determinants and Consequences," NBER Working Papers 0161, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Olivia S. Mitchell, 1982. "Fringe Benefits and Labor Mobility," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(2), pages 286-298.
    6. Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1993. "Health Insurance Provision and Labor Market Efficiency in the United States," NBER Working Papers 4388, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Gruber, Jonathan & Madrian, Brigitte C, 1995. "Health-Insurance Availability and the Retirement Decision," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 938-948, September.
    2. Susan Athey & Guido W. Imbens, 2006. "Identification and Inference in Nonlinear Difference-in-Differences Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(2), pages 431-497, March.
    3. Chatterji, Pinka & Li, Yue, 2017. "Early coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act and Supplemental Security Income participation," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 10(C), pages 75-83.
    4. Dionysia Lambiri & Alessandra Faggian & Neil Wrigley, 2017. "Linked-trip effects of ‘town-centre-first' era foodstore development: An assessment using difference-in-differences," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 44(1), pages 160-179, January.
    5. Kanika Kapur, 2003. "Labor Market Implications of State Small Group Health Insurance Reform," Public Finance Review, , vol. 31(6), pages 571-600, November.
    6. Douglas Holtz-Eakin, "undated". "Job-Lock: An Impediment to Labor Mobility? Is Health Insurance Crippling the Labor Market?," Economics Public Policy Brief Archive 10, Levy Economics Institute.
    7. del Valle, Alejandro, 2021. "The effects of public health insurance in labor markets with informal jobs: Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    8. Li, Yajuan & Palma, Marco A. & Towne, Samuel, 2017. "Does Health Insurance Provision Improve Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship? Evidence from State Insurance Mandates," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 258399, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    9. Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1993. "Is Health Insurance Crippling the Labor Market?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_97, Levy Economics Institute.
    10. Dan A. Black, 1996. "Family Health Benefits and Worker Turnover," Labor and Demography 9604001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Laura J. Owen, 2017. "Part-time Employment and Health Insurance Reform: What Can Massachusetts Tell Us about the Affordable Care Act?," Review of Social Sciences, LAR Center Press, vol. 2(3), pages 1-8, March.
    12. Mahé, Clotilde, 2020. "Publicly provided healthcare and migration," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 39(C).
    13. repec:kap:iaecre:v:3:y:1997:i:2:p:181-192 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Pinka Chatterji & Yue Li, 2016. "Early Effects of the 2010 Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansions on Federal Disability Program Participation," NBER Working Papers 22531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Anna Huysse-Gaytandjieva & Wim Groot & Milena Pavlova, 2013. "A New Perspective on Job Lock," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 112(3), pages 587-610, July.
    16. David J. Vanness, 2003. "A structural econometric model of family valuation and choice of employer‐sponsored health insurance in the United States," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(9), pages 771-790, September.
    17. Jonathan Gruber, 1997. "Health Insurance for Poor Women and Children in the US: Lessons from the Past Decade," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 11, pages 169-211, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Herzlinger, Regina E., 2010. "Healthcare reform and its implications for the U.S. economy," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 105-117, March.
    19. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Penrod, John R. & Rosen, Harvey S., 1996. "Health insurance and the supply of entrepreneurs," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1-2), pages 209-235, October.
    20. Bradley, Cathy J. & Bednarek, Heather L. & Neumark, David, 2002. "Breast cancer survival, work, and earnings," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 757-779, September.
    21. Liu, Kang Ernest & Chang, Hung-Hao & Chern, Wen S., 2008. "Changes in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption over Time and across Regions in China: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis with Quantile Regression," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6531, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    22. Brigitte C. Madrian, 1994. "Employment-Based Health Insurance and Job Mobility: Is there Evidence of Job-Lock?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(1), pages 27-54.
    23. Shi, Xuezhu, 2020. "Locked out? China’s health insurance scheme and internal migration," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    24. Jonathan Gruber & Brigitte C. Madrian, 1995. "Non-Employment and Health Insurance Coverage," NBER Working Papers 5228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Bahram Adrangi & Kambiz Raffiee, 1997. "An econometric analysis of health care reform in the U.S," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 181-192, May.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    health policy ; labour market ; labour movements;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General

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