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Democracy, Interest Groups and Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol - An Empirical Assessment


  • Sarah Al Doyaili-Wangler

    (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany)


This paper seeks to give insights into how domestic voters form their preferences pro or contra compliance with IEAs and therefore how public concern for the environment and interest group activity influence national compliance behaviour. Three hypotheses are developed. First, compliance behaviour is positively influenced by a high concern for climate change and second, by a high number of ENGOs. Third, a strong prevalence of industry interests is assumed to be connected with lower compliance. A panel data analysis on compliance with the Kyoto Protocol by Annex B countries is applied in order to test these hypotheses. The empirical findings give evidence for the first and the third one.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarah Al Doyaili-Wangler, 2021. "Democracy, Interest Groups and Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol - An Empirical Assessment," Jena Economics Research Papers 2021-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  • Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2021-001

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    Kyoto Protocol; interest groups; compliance; climate policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F53 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
    • H87 - Public Economics - - Miscellaneous Issues - - - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

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