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Exportações e Processos Inovativos: Um Estudo Para a América Latina e a Europa do Leste

  • Marcelo José Braga Nonnenberg
  • Ana Paula Avellar

Nas últimas décadas, um dos principais motores do crescimento do comércio exterior tem sido, sem dúvida, a inovação, entendida como a incorporação de conhecimento a produtos e processos produtivos. O objetivo deste Texto para Discussão é fornecer evidências de que a inovação contribui para o sucesso do desempenho exportador. Controla-se a presença de endogeneidade e o problema de viés de seleção por meio de variável instrumental e do modelo de seleção de Heckman. A análise baseia-se numa amostra de firmas pesquisadas pelo banco de dados Enterprise surveys, do Banco Mundial, para a América Latina e a Europa do Leste. As evidências encontradas sugerem que existe um padrão de comportamento entre as empresas da América Latina e da Europa do Leste. Tamanho, idade e participação de capital estrangeiro influenciam positivamente a decisão de exportar destas empresas. Quanto aos indicadores de inovação, os resultados apontam que a inovação afeta positivamente a probabilidade de as empresas exportarem. Os resultados do modelo de Heckman, somente para os países da América Latina, apontam que a inovação afeta a probabilidade de a empresa exportar e influencia negativamente a intensidade das exportações em relação às vendas. In the last decades one of the main engines of foreign trade growth has been innovation, the process of embedding knowledge in production processes. The purpose of this paper is to supply evidence favoring the hypothesis that innovation contributes positively to export performance when we control for endogeneity and selection bias by means of instrumental variables and Heckman selection model. The analysis is based upon a sample of firms from the Enterprise Surveys by the World Bank for Latin America and Eastern Europe. Evidence support the existence of a behavior pattern among firms in both regions. Size, age and foreign capital share have a positive influence on export decision. There is also a positive relationship between innovation and the likelihood of firms becoming exporters. Based on Heckman procedure, we also find evidence that innovative firms are more likely to become exporters but once they become exporters, the export intensity (relative to sales) affect negatively the result, only to Latin America countries.

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Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1899.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1899
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