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Os Efeitos das Desigualdades Regionais Sobre a Desigualdade Interpessoal de Renda no Brasil, Nos Estados Unidos e no México

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  • Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de Souza
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    O objetivo deste texto é investigar os efeitos das desigualdades regionais sobre a desigualdade interpessoal de renda domiciliar per capita no Brasil e comparar os mresultados com os encontrados nos Estados Unidos e no México. Cinco hipóteses são testadas a partir de decomposições aninhadas do índice de desigualdade GE(0) para diversos recortes geográficos. Os dados são provenientes dos censos demográficos dos três países. Os resultados sugerem que a maior parte da desigualdade de renda no Brasil, assim como nos Estados Unidos e no México, é local, entre vizinhos, não sendo captada nem mesmo por decomposições espaciais submunicipais. Dessa maneira, ainda que todos os municípios do Brasil tivessem exatamente a mesma renda per capita, a desigualdade total brasileira continuaria superior à observada nos Estados Unidos. No entanto, as desigualdades regionais não devem ser ignoradas, até porque são muito mais elevadas no Brasil e no México. A principal diferença entre estes países e os Estados Unidos está na existência de grandes regiões que possuem simultaneamente rendas médias muito inferiores e desigualdades internas muito superiores às demais regiões de cada país. A magnitude desses dois efeitos é semelhante, de modo que, para reduzir a desigualdade interpessoal de renda no Brasil, diminuir a desigualdade local no Norte/ Nordeste é tão importante quanto elevar a renda média nessa macrorregião agregada. This paper examines the effects of regional inequalities on the interpersonal distribution of household per capita income in Brazil, the United States and Mexico. Five hypotheses are tested through nested decompositions of the GE(0) inequality index applied to Census microdata for all three countries. The results suggest that income inequality is mostly local in Brazil as well as in the United States and Mexico, that is, it occurs among neighbors and thus remains unaccounted for even in municipality-level spatial decompositions. Income inequality in Brazil would still be higher than that of the United States even if it were possible to equalize the average incomes of all Brazilian municipalities. However, this does not mean that regional inequalities are of i. The versions in English of the abstracts of this series have not been edited by Ipea’s editorial department. As versões em língua inglesa das sinopses (abstracts) desta coleção não são objeto de revisão pelo Editorial do Ipea. no consequence to income inequality, as they are also much more pronounced in Brazil and Mexico. The main difference between these two countries and the United States lies in the existence of macro regions with lower average incomes and higher internal inequality than the rest of each country. Both effects are of similar magnitude, so that,in Brazil, lowering local inequality in the North/Northeast is as important as raising the average income of that region in order to reduce interpersonal income inequality.

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    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1897.

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    Length: 50 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2013
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1897
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