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O Estado Desenvolvimentista no Brasil: Perspectivas Históricas e Comparadas

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  • Ben Ross Schneider

Abstract

O histórico de sucesso dos Estados desenvolvimentistas na Ásia Oriental e o sucesso parcial de Estados desenvolvimentistas na América Latina sugerem vários pré-requisitos comuns para a intervenção estatal eficaz, incluindo uma burocracia weberiana, o monitoramento da implementação de projetos e reciprocidade (subsídios em troca de desempenho) e relações de colaboração entre governo e empresas. Embora o Brasil não tenha conseguido desenvolver uma indústria de fabricação e exportação de alta tecnologia – segmento que na Ásia Oriental foi responsável por um crescimento continuado –, o Estado desenvolvimentista brasileiro teve um número importante, e muitas vezes negligenciado, de sucessos, especialmente em aço, automóveis, mineração, etanol e fabricação de aeronaves. Ele foi menos bem-sucedido na promoção de setores como tecnologia da informação e energia nuclear, bem como na redução das desigualdades sociais e regionais. Além disso, algumas iniciativas isoladas de governos estaduais também foram eficazes na promoção de determinados segmentos locais da indústria e da agricultura. Em contraste com a Ásia Oriental, as empresas estatais no Brasil tiveram papel central, efetivamente internalizando os procedimentos de acompanhamento e reciprocidade e ignorando a colaboração entre empresas e governo. The historical success of the Asian developmental States and the partial success of developmental States in Latin America suggest numerous common requisites for an efficient State intervention, including a weberian bureaucracy, the monitoring of project implementation and reciprocity (subsidies in exchange of performance), and collaborative relations between government and private companies. Even though Brazil wasn’t able to develop a high technology manufacture and exportation industry – sector that responded for continued growth in East Asia – the Brazilian developmental State had an important number of successes, often neglected, especially in steel, cars, mining, ethanol and aircrafts. Brazil was less successful in the promotion of information technology, nuclear energy and in the reduction of social and regional inequalities governments were also efficient in the promotion of some local industrial and agricultural sectors. In contrast with Asia, Brazilian state-owned enterprises played a central role, effectively internalizing monitoring and reciprocity procedures, and ignoring the cooperation between government and private companies (which was, generally, more rare in Brazil).

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Ross Schneider, 2013. "O Estado Desenvolvimentista no Brasil: Perspectivas Históricas e Comparadas," Discussion Papers 1871, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1871
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    Cited by:

    1. Paulo F. Azevedo & Maria Sylvia Saes & Paula Sarita Bigio Schneider & Thiago Bernardino de Carvalho & Andresa Silva Neto Francischini & Synthia Kariny Silva de Santana & Maria Clara de Azevedo Morguli, 2016. "Learning from Productive Development Agencies in Brazil: Policies for Technological Innovation," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 96997, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Paulo F. Azevedo & Maria Sylvia Saes & Paula Sarita Bigio Schneider & Thiago Bernardino de Carvalho & Andresa Silva Neto Francischini & Synthia Kariny Silva de Santana & Maria Clara de Azevedo Morguli, 2016. "Learning from Productive Development Agencies in Brazil: Policies for Technological Innovation," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 8020, Inter-American Development Bank.

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