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Políticas de Inovação no Brasil e na China do Século XXI

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  • Bruno Cézar Araújo

Abstract

Este texto apresenta uma breve apreciação das políticas de inovação no Brasil e na China, acompanhando as mudanças no sistema legal, nos programas governamentais e também no ambiente institucional nos dois países, particularmente na última década. Ao menos no que se refere aos documentos oficiais, ambos os países perseguem objetivos similares, utilizam o mesmo instrumental de medidas de política e seus incentivos fiscais à inovação estão entre os mais generosos do mundo. No entanto, embora a China tenha conseguido mudar estruturalmente seus indicadores de ciência, tecnologia e inovação (CT&I), é consenso entre os especialistas que o Brasil não tem sido capaz de transformar o seu boom científico em inovação. Uma das razões – entre muitas – reside nas diferenças acerca da estrutura institucional de apoio à inovação: a China tem políticas de inovação com foco claramente definido e apresenta uma estrutura burocrática que incentiva inovações institucionais e a reprodução de melhores práticas, enquanto no Brasil há dificuldade para estabelecer prioridades, e as políticas de inovação são difusas e enviesadas para o setor acadêmico. This paper presents a summary and a brief appraisal of innovation policies in Brazil and China, following the changes in the legal system, in governmental programs and also in the institutional environment of innovation policies in both countries, mainly during the last decade. Both countries have similar policy measures and fiscal incentives that are considered to be among the most generous in the world. However, whilst China has managed to structurally change its Science, Technology and Innovation figures in the last two decades, Brazil has not been able to transform its ‘scientific boom’ into innovation. This may be partly explained by institutional differences regarding their innovation support structure: China has innovation policies that have a clearly defined focus and a bureaucratic structure which stimulates institutional innovations and the dissemination of best practices. In turn, innovation policies are diffuse and biased towards the academic sector in Brazil.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruno Cézar Araújo, 2013. "Políticas de Inovação no Brasil e na China do Século XXI," Discussion Papers 1863, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1863
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