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Experiências de Governança Metropolitana Internacional: Os Casos dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá

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  • Karla França
  • Bernardo Alves Furtado

Abstract

O texto analisa aspectos da governança metropolitana dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá, observando estratégias de ações cooperadas e critérios utilizados em suas experiências de gestão e institucionalização. Nesse sentido, discorre-se sobre os arranjos instituídos de forma compulsória ou voluntária, as fontes de financiamento e a oferta de serviços cooperados. Além disso, no intuito de contribuir para a compreensão da problemática e das estratégias de enfrentamento da questão, o estudo enfoca os processos de metropolização,suburbanização e adensamento de áreas metropolitanas. Desse modo, este estudo tem por objetivo analisar a questão metropolitana, considerando essencialmente suas institucionalidades e a promoção de políticas e programas empreendidos nos espaços metropolitanos. Consideram-se as diretrizes institucionais dos países federativos em questão, bem como os desafios e limitações de fomento à governança metropolitana. As reflexões foram desenvolvidas a partir da revisão da literatura internacional e de estudos formais realizados pelas próprias instituições e organizações metropolitanas entre 1970 e 2012.A análise indica que os arranjos de governança metropolitana nos Estados Unidos e no Canadá apresentam estruturas diferenciadas em relação à participação política e à concentração ou fragmentação da tomada de decisão, embora os critérios de delimitação metropolitana sejam similares. Há diversidade de modelos para a prestação de serviços comuns e cooperação, com existência de fragilidades nas estratégias para a articulação de políticas intersetoriais e fortes conflitos entre agentes econômicos públicos e privados. This paper focus on aspects of metropolitan governance of the United States and Canada highlighting strategies of cooperation and criteria used in their experiences of management and institutionalization. Thus, it describes both the governance experiences implemented voluntarily or compulsorily, their financing mechanisms and the resulting ability to offer public services. Besides, aiming at further deepening the understanding of the strategies adopted, this paper depicts the processes of conurbation,urban sprawl and densification in metropolitan areas. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the institutional processes of metropolitan governance and its fostering of public policies and programs. Institutional guidelines, challenges and observed limitations are considered for the cases at hand. In order to develop the paper,specific literature produced by the institutions as well as their analysis was consulted. The analyses indicate that there are different governance structures in Canada and in the United States concerning both political attachment and concentration or fragmentation of decision-making processes although delimitation criteria of metropolitan areas are similar. There is a diversity of models for offering public services.However, some limitations can still be observed in terms of articulating policies among different sectors. Disagreements persist among public and private economic actors.

Suggested Citation

  • Karla França & Bernardo Alves Furtado, 2013. "Experiências de Governança Metropolitana Internacional: Os Casos dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá," Discussion Papers 1855, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1855
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