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Gasto Público e Desigualdade de Renda no Brasil

  • Marcelo Medeiros
  • Pedro Souza

Por meio de uma decomposição de fatores do coeficiente de Gini, mediu-se a contribuição para a desigualdade das transferências monetárias diretas do e para o Estado brasileiro. Entre as transferências do Estado, estão salários dos trabalhadores do setor público, previdência pública em geral e assistência social; as transferências para o Estado são os tributos diretos. Os dados são provenientes da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF) 2008-2009. Os resultados indicam que o Estado contribui diretamente para uma grande fração da desigualdade. Fatores associados ao trabalho no setor público – salários e Previdência – são muito concentrados e regressivos. Fatores relacionados ao setor privado também são concentradores, porém progressivos. Mecanismos redistributivos que poderiam reverter esta desigualdade, como tributos diretos e assistência social, são muito progressivos, mas seu volume é proporcionalmente pequeno; consequentemente, seu efeito positivo é completamente anulado pelas transferências regressivas do Estado. Ao contrário do que ocorre em outros países, o gasto público com trabalho e políticas sociais é concentrado em uma pequena população e, em seu conjunto, tende a aumentar a desigualdade. Using a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient we measure the contribution to inequality of direct monetary transfers to and from the Brazilian State. Among the transfers from the State are wages of public workers, pensions and social assistance; the transfers to the State are direct taxes. Data comes from the Brazilian POF 2008-2009. The results indicate that the State contributes directly and to a large share of inequality. Factors associated to work in the public sector – wages and pensions – are very concentrated and regressive. Factors related to the private sector are still concentrated, but progressive. Redistributive mechanisms that could revert this inequality, such as taxes and social assistance, are very progressive but proportionally small; consequently their effect is completely offset by the regressive transfers from the State. Contrary to what has been found in other countries, public spending with work and social policies is concentrated in a small oligarchy and, taken as a whole, tends to increase inequality.

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Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1844.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1844
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