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As Liberdades Humanas como Bases do Desenvolvimento: Uma Análise Conceitual da Abordagem das Capacidades Humanas de Amartya Sen

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  • Maurício Mota Saboya Pinheiro

Abstract

Este texto objetiva fazer uma análise conceitual da abordagem das capacidades humanas (desenvolvimento como liberdade) do economista e filósofo indiano Amartya Sen. Procura dar uma visão panorâmica da rede conceitual dessa abordagem e sinalizar algumas questões relevantes para a avaliação de instituições e de políticas públicas em geral. Contudo, o trabalho deve ser entendido como parte de uma pesquisa mais ampla, ainda em curso, cuja finalidade é aumentar nossa capacidade de análise dos grandes problemas do desenvolvimento nacional. Para Amartya Sen, um país é tanto mais desenvolvido quanto mais se promove a expansão do horizonte de liberdade dos seus cidadãos. Assim, a análise de Sen volta-se para o que devem ser os verdadeiros fins do desenvolvimento: as próprias pessoas. Nesse sentido, a abordagem de avaliação social do autor aqui estudado se distingue de outras mais tradicionais, cujo foco recai sobre a renda, a riqueza, e/ou outros meios de que as pessoas se utilizam para atingir seus objetivos. Este trabalho conclui que a abordagem das capacidades humanas pode ser vista como um método geral de avaliação de estratégias de desenvolvimento, instituições e políticas públicas. Ademais, conclui que a obra de Sen é capaz de contribuir com muitos insights e informações relevantes que poderão ser combinados com os diagnósticos e métodos empregados nas outras abordagens. Palavras-chave: desenvolvimento econômico; desenvolvimento humano; liberdade; Amartya Sen. This text aims at making a conceptual analysis of the capabilities approach (development as freedom) proposed by the Indian economist and philosopher Amartya Sen. It seeks to provide a broad view on the conceptual web of Sen?s approach; thereafter it points out some issues that are relevant to the assessment of institutions and public policies in general. This work should be understood as part of an ongoing and broader research that seeks to enlarge our analytical power to deal with the major problems of national development. To Amartya Sen, the more developed a country is, the more expanded is the horizon of its citizens? freedoms. So, Sen?s analysis concerns what should be the true aim of development: persons themselves. In this sense, Sen?s social evaluation approach is to be distinguished from the more traditional ones that focus on income, wealth and/or other means which people employ in order to attain their objectives. This work concludes that the capabilities approach may be seen as a general method of evaluating development strategies, institutions and public policies. Also, that Sen?s ideas can contribute many insights and relevant information that could be combined with diagnoses and methods employed in the more traditional approaches. Keywords: economic development; human development; freedom; Amartya Sen.

Suggested Citation

  • Maurício Mota Saboya Pinheiro, 2012. "As Liberdades Humanas como Bases do Desenvolvimento: Uma Análise Conceitual da Abordagem das Capacidades Humanas de Amartya Sen," Discussion Papers 1794, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1794
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