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A Convergência das Políticas Ambientais e Comerciais no Contexto das Mudanças Climáticas: Possíveis Impactos Sobre a Competitividade Brasileira?

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  • Maria Bernadete Gomes Pereira Sarmiento Gutierrez

Abstract

Ganha força no mundo ideia de que políticas ambientais e políticas comerciais devem ser formuladas de forma integrada, para que se garantam a consistência e a integridade das negociações climáticas. De forma complementar às negociações no âmbito da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre a Mudança do Clima (CQNUMC), alguns países já iniciaram ou estão considerando programas nacionais de limitação nas suas emissões de gases do efeito estufa (GEE), potencialmente se superpondo ao regime do comércio internacional. Destacam-se a União Europeia e os Estados Unidos como exemplos de formuladores de importantes programas para a mitigação nas suas emissões. Em ambos os casos, estes programas terão uma importante interface com as políticas comerciais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo principal mostrar como o comércio e o meio ambiente são questões que estarão crescentemente inter-relacionadas nos foros de negociações comerciais, e de sugerir como o Brasil, sendo país não anexo I, pode ter a competitividade de suas exportações afetadas. Palavras-chave: políticas ambientais; políticas comerciais; competitividade; tarifa ad valorem sobre o carbono. The idea that environmental and trade policies should be formulated in an integrated framework has been gaining momentum so that to ensure the integrity and consistency of climate change negotiations. In a complementary way to the negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), some countries have already started or are in the process of launching national mitigation plans for reducing greenhouse gases emissions which have an important interface to the international trade regime. The United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) are examples of countries in the process of considering important national plans for the mitigation of their emissions. In both cases, these programmes will have an important interface to trade policies. In this context, the main objective of this study is to highlight the increasingly interdependency of environmental and trade issues in international negotiations as well as to suggest how this might affect Brazilian competitiveness exports, recalling that Brazil is still a non Annex I country. Keywords: trade and environment; competitiveness; border trade adjustments.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria Bernadete Gomes Pereira Sarmiento Gutierrez, 2012. "A Convergência das Políticas Ambientais e Comerciais no Contexto das Mudanças Climáticas: Possíveis Impactos Sobre a Competitividade Brasileira?," Discussion Papers 1772, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1772
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