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Tecnologia Militar e Desenvolvimento Econômico: Uma Análise Histórica

  • Érico Esteves Duarte
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    O presente artigo busca contribuir para o debate público motivado pela Estratégia Nacional de Defesa contrapondo-se à expectativa de que a modernização em tecnologia militar tenha efeitos positivos e diretos na capacidade combatente das forças armadas e no desenvolvimento tecnológico civil. O artigo: i) propõe uma definição de tecnologia, assim como uma análise histórica de sua evolução e dos requisitos sociais para seu desenvolvimento; ii) qualifica os limites e dificuldades de inovação em forças armadas na conduta da guerra; e iii) infere as tendências históricas de transferência tecnológica entre esferas militares e civis. O artigo conclui que as forças armadas não são o vetor ideal de inovação de uma sociedade; por isso se argumenta que a decisão pela modernização das Forças Armadas brasileiras não deve ser sujeita a critérios de desenvolvimento econômico, bem como as iniciativas de ganho de produtividade ou inovação tecnológica do parque industrial civil brasileiro não devem obedecer a critérios e necessidades de organizações militares. Palavras-chave: Tecnologia militar, desenvolvimento econômico, história militar, estudos estratégicos, defesa nacional, spin-off. This article aims to foster the national defense debate by arguing against the expectative in favor of the linkage between military technology, on one side, and combatant capacity and economic development, on another one. This article argues: i) a definition of technology that entails on a historical analysis of its evolution and a set of social requirements for its development; ii) the aspects of the conduct of war that limit and hamper overall innovation within armed forces; and iii) the causes that explain the historical trends of technological exchanges between military and civilian areas. This article concludes that the armed forces are not the ideal driving-force of innovation within a society. It sustains the argument that Brazilian armed forces modernization should not be according to economic development requirements and that Brazilian non-military industrial and technological promotion should not be dependent of military requirements and demands. Keywords: Military technology, economic development, military history, strategic studies, national defense, spin-off.

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    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1748.

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    Length: 38 pages
    Date of creation: Jun 2012
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1748
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