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Perfil da Pobreza na Bahia e sua Evolução no Período 2004-2009

  • Pedro H. G. F. de Souza
  • Rafael Guerreiro Osorio

O objetivo deste texto é documentar mudanças nas características e condições de vida de quatro estratos de renda - extremamente pobres, pobres, vulneráveis e não pobres - na Bahia entre 2004 e 2009. Os aspectos abordados incluem o tamanho dos estratos; a distribuição entre áreas urbanas e rurais; a cobertura e impactos do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) e do Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC); os níveis educacionais; a vinculação com o mercado de trabalho; a estrutura etária; tamanho e composição das famílias; sexo e cor ou raça das pessoas de referência; acesso a saneamento básico e bens de consumo; e classificação segundo tipos de famílias. Houve grande diminuição da pobreza e da extrema pobreza na Bahia, mas em ritmo mais lento que no resto do país. Além disso, constatou-se que os indivíduos e famílias com vínculos relativamente sólidos - ainda que informais - com o mercado de trabalho conseguiram sair da extrema pobreza, que só não foi erradicada porque existe ainda um número significativo de pessoas cuja conexão é tão frágil (ou inexistente) que não conseguiram beneficiar-se. Para este último grupo, que agora compõe a maioria dos extremamente pobres, o instrumento mais importante para aliviar sua privação foi o PBF. Palavras-chaves: desindustrialização; pobreza; perfil da pobreza; Bahia. This paper aims to describe recent changes in the characteristics and living conditions of four income groups - extremely poor, poor, vulnerable and non-poor - in the state of Bahia between 2004 and 2009. We investigate the size of each group; their distribution between urban and rural areas; the coverage and impacts of the Bolsa Família and BPC programs; educational attainment; labor market insertion; age structure; size and composition of families; gender and race of household heads; access to sanitation and durable consumer goods. The first major conclusion is that there was a marked reduction in poverty and extreme poverty in Bahia during this period, although at a slower pace than in the rest of the. country. Second, it is clear that individuals and families with reasonably sturdy - even if informal - connections to the labor market have benefitted from recent economic growth and were lifted out of extreme poverty. However, extreme poverty was not eradicated because there remains a sizable group with remarkably precarious or even non-existent links to the labor market. For this group, the Bolsa Família program was the most effective tool to alleviate their intense deprivation.

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Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1743.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1743
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