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Preferências, Instituições e Política na Formulação e Implementação do Benefício de Prestação Continuada

  • Geralda Luiza de Miranda
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    Neste trabalho é analisada a influência das preferências sociais e políticas e das instituições sobre a formulação e a implementação da política brasileira de garantia de renda não contributiva para pessoas com deficiência e idosas, denominada Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC). O argumento que orienta a análise é o de que os avanços e os recuos na evolução dessa política relacionam-se com o grau de convergência entre as preferências dos atores sociais e as dos atores políticos e com o tipo de estrutura institucional na qual eles interagiram. Na formulação, são distinguidas duas fases - a constitucionalização do direito, em 1988, e sua regulamentação pela Lei Orgânica de Assistência Social (Loas), em 1993 -, que se diferenciam quanto ao efeito do grau de abertura institucional às preferências sociais sobre o escopo do BPC. Na implementação, verifica-se que mudanças nas preferências de atores políticos em posições estratégicas relacionam-se com variações no grau de responsividade política e de insulamento da burocracia e, correlativamente, com restrições e avanços no BPC, o que permite distinguir também duas fases (da Loas até o Estatuto do Idoso, em 2003; deste até o final da pesquisa, em 2010). Palavras-chave: Assistência social brasileira, lei orgânica da assistência social, benefício de prestação continuada, implementação. Herein, the influence of institutions and of social and political preferences upon the design and the implementation of the Brazilian non contributive income cash transfer to the elderly and disabled poor - Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) - is analyzed. The main argument is that forward and backward movements throughout the policy process were related to the degree of convergence of the social and political stakeholder`s preferences as well as to the institutional environment where they interacted. Two stages are distinguished by particular events during the design period, the end of the first being the appearance of BPC as a Constitutional right, in 1988, and the end of the second marked by its final regulation in the Brazilian Social Assistancea. Law - Lei Orgânica de Assistência Social (Loas), 1993. Such stages are distinct in regard to the influence of the institutional openness to social preferences about the BPC design. Along the implementation period, changes in key political stakeholder`s preferences were related to variations in the degree of political responsiveness and bureaucratic insulation, leading to restrictions and improvement in BPC. This period can also be divided in two stages, from Loas, 1993, to the Elder Person Protection Act (Estatuto do Idoso) in 2003, and then on. Keywords: Brazilian social assistance, brazilian social assistance law, benefício de prestação continuada, implementation.

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    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1734.

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    Length: 46 pages
    Date of creation: May 2012
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1734
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