US Economic Sanctions: Their Impact on Trade, Jobs, and Wages
Economic sanctions have resurfaced at the center of public policy debate. After a brief lull following the politically disastrous grain embargo and pipeline sanctions in the early 1980s, sanctions are once again the weapon of choice to enforce a myriad of US foreign policy goals, from countering terrorism to battling drug trafficking. A recent National Association of Manufacturers (1997) study lists over 30 countries hit by new US sanctions during the period 1993-1996. Many of these actions were unilateral, reducing their impact in an increasingly globalized economy that has many alternative suppliers and markets. High-publicity initiatives, such as the Helms-Burton Act and the Iran/Libya Sanctions Act, which threaten to punish third-country corporations that conduct business in Cuba, Iran, and Libya, also raise the possibility that frustrated OECD governments (such as Canada and France) will retaliate against US companies.
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