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Transparency and Accountability in Bolivia: Does Voice Matter?


  • George Gray-Molina
  • Ernesto Perez de Rada
  • Ernesto Yáñez


Using a survey of clients, doctors and nurses in thirty municipal hospitals, this study examines the scope and determinants of corruption in Bolivia`s public health sector. The authors find that `voice` mechanisms such as citizen activism and oversight are significant in exposing bribery and deterring the overpricing of medical supplies. The existence of `exit` options, such as recourse to private health service providers, additionally serves to deter corruption. Hierarchical controls, such as administrative regulations and procedures, seem to have little impact on hospital corruption, though further research is needed to verify this finding.

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  • George Gray-Molina & Ernesto Perez de Rada & Ernesto Yáñez, 1999. "Transparency and Accountability in Bolivia: Does Voice Matter?," Research Department Publications 3081, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:3081

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    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Kaufmann & Gil Mehrez & Tugrul Gurgur, 2003. "Voice or Public Sector Management? An Empirical Investigation of Determinants of Public Sector Performance based on a Survey of Public Officials," Econometrics 0308004, EconWPA.

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