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Economic Performance and Industrial Clusters in Brazil

Author

Listed:
  • Jose Claudio Pires

    () (Office of Evaluation and Oversight, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, USA)

  • Tulio Cravo

    () (Office of Evaluation and Oversight, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, USA)

  • Simon Lodato

    () (Office of Evaluation and Oversight, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, USA)

  • Caio Piza

    () (Development Impact Evaluation Unit, The World Bank)

Abstract

Industrial clusters are commonly targeted to receive financial support allocated to local-based development projects. Cluster promotion is seen as an effective industrial policy tool aimed at improving productivity and employment generation. Nevertheless, despite its popularity as a regional development policy, identifying and assessing the economic performance of clusters is still a challenge for policy makers. The objective of this paper is twofold: identify the location of clusters in Brazil; and provide some insights of its effect on employment generation. This paper uses three measures of identification to test whether the correlation between clusters and economic performance depends on the way clusters are identified. Noticeably, the existing literature on clusters’ identification in Brazil ignores possible spatial dependence. To address this gap in the literature, this paper draws on Carroll et al. (2008) and uses Location Quotient (LQ) and Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) simultaneously to identify potential clusters in Brazil in 27 industrial sectors and using a comprehensive census data of the formal sector covering 5564 Brazilian municipalities. In addition, the paper uses an annual municipal panel data for the period 2006-2009 to assess whether the presence of clusters is correlated to superior economic performance, particularly employment generation. The results show that potential clusters are correlated with better economic performance, however, different types of agglomerations present different association with economic performance. Firstly, municipalities in specialized clusters (SR) perform poorly in terms of employment generation. Secondly, the results suggest that clusters of municipalities with neighbors with similar industrial structure (Periphery Regions and Potential Cluster Region) perform much better than those that only present industry specialization (SR) and are not close to similar municipalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Jose Claudio Pires & Tulio Cravo & Simon Lodato & Caio Piza, 2013. "Economic Performance and Industrial Clusters in Brazil," OVE Working Papers 0213, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:ovewps:0213
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Industrial cluster; regional economic development; spatial dependence;

    JEL classification:

    • C0 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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